Other Diplomacy in the 1920s

Agreements were made in the 1920s

1. Between 1921 and 1929, the political situation seemed to be improving as countries tried to cooperate.

2. There were many important agreements over arms reduction, borders and economic aid.

Washington Conference 1921 - USA, Britain, Japan and France reduce size of navies. This showed some countries were keen on disarmament but afterwards, nobody wanted to reduce arms further, and Japan's navy was the dominant power in the Pacific.

Geneva Protocol 1924 - Tries to make countries use the League to sort out disputes. This seemed to be strengthening the League of Nations but Britain refused to sign it after a change in Government.

Dawes Plan 1924 - USA plan to lend money to Germany and spread out repayments.

Young Plan 1929 - Reduces German reparations by 75% and gives it 59 years to pay it.

Both of these would help Germany to recover, increasing trade and cooperation. The benefits of the Dawes and Young Plans were wiped out by the Depression, which was soom to affect everybody.

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Locarno Treaties

Locarno Treaties 1925 - Germany's western borders set at Versailles should be permanent.

1. This suggested that Germany was at last prepared to accept the Treaty of Versailles.

2. The treaties were proposed by the German foreign minister, Gustav Stresemann, and signed voluntarily. Germany seemed to be moving on from feelings of resentment and could be treated more like an equal. This was a significant step towards peace.

Stresemann wanted Europe to trust Germany again. By pointing out that Germany played an active role in creating the Locarno treaties, Stresemann could show that Germany wanted to create a lasting peace. However, some were still suspicious that the Locarno treaties didn't cover Germany's eastern borders.

3. The Locarno treaties also allowed Germany to join the League of Nations in 1926.

4. However, nothing was said about Germany's eastern borders, which worried Czechoslovakia and Poland.

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Kellogg-Briand Pact

Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 - 65 nations agree not to use 'aggression' to settle arguments.

1. One weakness of this pact was that it didn't define what 'aggression' actually meant, so countries couldn't claim that they weren't guilty of it. Also, no one knew what would happen if a country broke the Kellogg-Briand Pact.

2. However, it wass till one of the most significant steps of the entire decade towards a lasting peace. It showed that countries were truly committed to the idea of preventing future wars.

3. The USA signed it too, despite the isolationism that had kept them out of the League of Nations.

The spirit of the LoN was strengthened by these treaties - especially when Germany joined. However, you could also argue that countries began to make agreements seperate to the League because they didn't trust it to be effective.

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