A2 revision cards for Osteoarthritis

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What are the signs/symptoms of Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis has many symptoms that can be quite difficult to live with. These include:

  • Inflamed and swollen joints
  • Hard swellings (bone spurs)
  • Soft swellings (extra fluid)
  • Creaking, grating joints
  • Pain
  • Stiffness
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What causes Osteoarthritis?

There are many factors that can increase the risk of Osteoarthritis. These include:

  • Being 40+ 
  • Gender - more prominent in women
  • Being overweight
  • Genes
  • Joint injuries
  • Joint abnormalities
  • Joint diseases
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How does Osteoarthritis progress?

Osteoarthritis affects people in different ways, progressing over varying periods of time. This can include:

  • Usually develops over many years causing small changes to a joint
  • Can develop quickly over a year causing damage to joints, such as deformity
  • After a few years, symptoms remain the same/get easier
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How is Osteoarthritis diagnosed?


Your doctor may examine the joint and check for:

  • Joint tenderness
  • Creaking and grating
  • Bone spurs
  • Excess fluid
  • Restricted movement in the joint
  • Thinning of muscles supporting the joint


  • Most useful test for diagnosing osteoarthritis, but not always needed
  • Don't show how much pain and disability you may have
  • Show bone spurs and narrowing between bones
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What aids/adaptations will they need?

  • Walking stick
  • Pick up aids
  • Velcro fastening/zip pullers
  • Hand rail/toilet raisers
  • Wheel chairs
  • Stair lifts
  • Kettle tippers
  • Plate guards
  • Wheelchair ramp
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