Test for Alcohols, Aldehydes and Ketones
ALCOHOL: test what type you have warm it with the oxidising agent acidified potasium dichromate. and watch for color change...
PRIMARY: ORANGE ---> GREEN as an Aldehyde forms (then eventually COOH)
SECONDARY: ORANGE ---> GREEN as a Ketone forms
You have to do another test to find if you have produced an Aldehyde or a Ketone
TOLLENS: ALDEHYDE ---> SILVER MIRROR KETONE---> NO REACTION
FEHLINGS OR BENEDICTS: ALDEHYDE ---> BRICK RED PRECIPITATE //// KETONE----> NO REACTION
Test for Unsaturation
Shake with ORANGE BROMIDE SOLUTION.
If the substance is unsaturated........
Solution with quickly decolourise
Distinguishing between haloalkanes
First need halogen off the haloalkane and put it into solution as a halide ion -- ADD NAOH
Now add NITRIC ACID to remove interfering ions)
Add SILVER NITRATE SOLUTION... Precipitate of silver halide
HALIDE WITH SILVER NITRATE SOLUBILITY OF PRECIPITATE IN AMMONIA SOLUTION
F- No Precipitate /
Cl- White Precipitate Dissolves in dilute ammonia solution
Br- Cream Precipitate Dissolves in concentrated ammonia solution
I- Yellow Precipitate Insoluble in concentrated ammonia solution
Percentage Yield and Atom Economy
% Yeild = Theoretical Yield X 100
Mass of Desired Product
% atom economy = Total mass of reactants X 100