Organic Synthesis and Analysis

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Test for Alcohols, Aldehydes and Ketones

ALCOHOL: test what type you have warm it with the oxidising agent acidified potasium dichromate. and watch for color change...    

PRIMARY: ORANGE ---> GREEN as an Aldehyde forms (then eventually COOH)

SECONDARY: ORANGE ---> GREEN as a Ketone forms

TERTIARY: NOTHING.

You have to do another test to find if you have produced an Aldehyde or a Ketone

TOLLENS: ALDEHYDE ---> SILVER MIRROR               KETONE---> NO REACTION

FEHLINGS OR BENEDICTS:    ALDEHYDE ---> BRICK RED PRECIPITATE   ////                                                                 KETONE----> NO REACTION

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Test for Unsaturation

Shake with ORANGE BROMIDE SOLUTION.

If the substance is unsaturated........

Solution with quickly decolourise

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Distinguishing between haloalkanes

First need halogen off the haloalkane and put it into solution as a halide ion -- ADD NAOH

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Now add NITRIC ACID to remove interfering ions)

Add SILVER NITRATE SOLUTION... Precipitate of silver halide

HALIDE      WITH SILVER NITRATE      SOLUBILITY OF PRECIPITATE IN AMMONIA SOLUTION

    F-                  No Precipitate                                                                 /

   Cl-                White Precipitate                              Dissolves in dilute ammonia solution

   Br-                Cream Precipitate                        Dissolves in concentrated ammonia solution

    I-                  Yellow Precipitate                        Insoluble in concentrated ammonia solution

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Percentage Yield and Atom Economy

                          Actual Yield     

% Yeild =        Theoretical Yield              X 100

                                         Mass of Desired Product    

% atom economy =         Total mass of reactants                       X 100

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