What is Homolytic Fission?
- Each bonded atom takes one of the shared pair of electrons
- Each atom now has a radical - (unpaired electron)
- Two radicals are produced
X-Y --> X. + Y. (Radicals)
What is Heterolytic Fission?
- One bonded atom shares both shared pair of electrons
- Two ions produced - ( + & - )
- Atom that does not share electrons = + (positive ion)
- Atom that shares both electrons = - (Negative ion)
X-Y --> X+ + Y- (two ions)
What is a nucleophile?
- A reactant that attacks a electron defficient carbon, donating an electron pair
- Have lone pairs
- Delta negative partial charge
- Examples: :BR- , :OH- , H2O: , :NH3
What is an electrophile?
- A reactant that attacks an area of high electron density, recieving an electron pair.
- Positive ions
- Positive partial charge
Examples: BR2, HBr, NO2
What is an addition reaction?
- Two reactants combine together to form one product
- Molecules added across double bond of unsaturated molecule
- Saturated molecule produced
EG) Ethene + Bromine --> 1.2 Dibromoethane
What is a substitution reaction?
- An atom/group of atoms is replaced by with a different atom/group of atoms
Bromoethane + OH- --> Ethanol + Br-
(nucleophile) (Bromide ion)
What is an elimination reaction?
- One reactant forms two products
- Water Molecule is removed from saturated molecule
- forming a unsaturated moleucle and water (or another product)
Ethanol --> Ethene + H20