Organic Reagents And Their Reactions

AS Chemistry OCR. 

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Homolytic Fission

What is Homolytic Fission?

- Each bonded atom takes one of the shared pair of electrons 

- Each atom now has a radical - (unpaired electron)


- Two radicals are produced

X-Y --> X. + Y. (Radicals)

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Heterolytic Fission

What is Heterolytic Fission?

- One bonded atom shares both shared pair of electrons 


- Two ions produced - ( + & - )


- Atom that does not share electrons = + (positive ion)

- Atom that shares both electrons = - (Negative ion)

X-Y --> X+  +  Y- (two ions)


 

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Nucleophiles

What is a nucleophile?

- A reactant that attacks a electron defficient carbon, donating an electron pair

- Have lone pairs

- Delta negative partial charge 

- Examples:  :BR- , :OH- , H2O: , :NH3

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Electronphiles

What is an electrophile?

- A reactant that attacks an area of high electron density, recieving an electron pair. 

- Positive ions

- Positive partial charge

Examples: BR2, HBr, NO2

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Addition Reactions

What is an addition reaction?

- Two reactants combine together to form one product

- Molecules added across double bond of unsaturated molecule

- Saturated molecule produced 

 EG) Ethene + Bromine  --> 1.2 Dibromoethane
                    (Electrophile) 

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Substitution Reactions

What is a substitution reaction?

- An atom/group of atoms is replaced by  with a different atom/group of atoms

Example:

Bromoethane + OH-   -->  Ethanol  + Br-
                (nucleophile)              (Bromide ion)

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Elimination Reaction

What is an elimination reaction?

- One reactant forms two products

- Water Molecule is removed from saturated molecule

- forming a unsaturated moleucle and water (or another product)

Example)

               (acid catalyst)

 Ethanol          -->        Ethene + H20 

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