Organic Reactions

Summary of organice reactions

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  • Created by: Caitlin
  • Created on: 05-03-13 19:10

ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

Oxidising aldehydes:

To carboxylic acid

Reageants: acidified potassium dichromate 

Conditions: warm reflux

Observation: orange to green 

Mechanism: n/a

1 of 9

TESTS

Distinguishing between aldehydes and ketones

Fehlings-

Observation: Blue solution to brick red precipitate 

Tollens'-

Observation: Colourless solution to silver mirror

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CARBONYL- ketone

REDUCTION to alcohol

Reagents: NaBH4

Conditions: Room temperature

Mechanism: nucleophilic addition

ADDITION OF HCN goes to hydroxynitrile 

Reagents: NaCN and HCl

Conditions: Room temperature

Mechanism: nucleophilic addition

3 of 9

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

Esterification

Reagents: any alcohol. Concentrated sulphuric acid which acts as a catalyst.

ACID BASE

Carboxylic acids and NaOH/Na2CO3

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ESTERS

Acid Hydrolysis

Reagents: Concentrated H2SO4

Conditions: Heat under reflux

Alkaline Hydrolysis (saponification)

Reagents: NaOH (aq)

Conditions: Heat under reflux

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ACYL CHLORIDES- acylation (same products with acid

With Water 

Forms: Carboxylic Acid

With Ammonia

Forms: Amides 

With Alcohols

Forms: Esters

With Primary Amines

Forms: N-sub amides

Conditons for all: Room Temperature

Observations for all: White Misty Flumes

Mechanisim for all: Nucleophilic addition-elimination 

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AMINES

HALOALKANE TO PRIMARY AMINE

Reagents:Haloalkanes and excess ammonia

HALOALKANE TO SECONDARY AMINE 

Reagents: Haloalkanes and primary amine

HALOALKANE TO TERTIARY AMINE

Reagents: Haloalkanes and secondary amine

HALOALKANE TO QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALT

Reagents: Haloalkanes and tertiary amine

Conditions for all: Heat 

Mechanism for all: nucleophilic subsitituition

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REDUCTION OF AMINES

Forms: Primary amine from a nitrile

Reagents: LiAlH4 (free from water)

Conditions: Room temperature

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AMINO ACIDS

ACIDS

Reagents: HCL

ALKALIS 

Reagents: NaOH

Conditions for these 2: Room Temperature

HYDROLYSIS OF PROTEINS

Condtions: Heat and reflux

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