Organic Chemistry Definitions

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Definitions

  • Hydrocarbon: molecule that only contains carbon and hydrogen
  • Empirical formula: simplest whole number ratio of atom of an element in a compound
  • Molecular formula: tells number of atoms of each different element that make up a molecule
  • Displayed formula: formula drawn out so atom and bonds shown
  • Structural formula: way of writting of organic compounds where bonds aren't shown
  • Functional group: atom or group of atoms in organic molecule responsible for characteristics and chemical properties e.g. C=C, bromo
  • Homologous series: set of organic compounds with same functional group. Compounds differ in chain length
  • Alkane: unsaturated hydrocarbon with just single carbon bonds
  • Alkene: saturated hydrocarbon with double carbon bonds
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Isomer Definitions

Structural isomers: molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures

Chain isomers: substances with the same molecular formula but the hydrocarbon chain is arranged differently

Positional isomers: substances with the same molecular formula but functional groups in different positions

Functional group isomer: substances with the same molecular formula but different functional group ( different homologous series) e.g. Alkenes, cycloalkanes

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