Things you will know...
By the end of this you should be able to...
- Understand the terms homologous series and functional group
- Understand the terms hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated
- State that alkanes and cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons
- Explain the tetrahedral shape around each carbon atom present in an alkane
- State the names of the first ten members of the alkane homologous series
* Use the terms homologous series and functional group
A FUNCTIONAL GROUP is the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical properties. The functional group is attached to some point on the carbon backbone of the organic molecule.
A saturated carbon chain has little chemical reactivity. The chemistry of a carbon compound is determined by the functional group.
Molecules with the same functional froup react in a similar way.
A HOMOLOGOUS SERIES is a family of compounds with the following properties:
- They contain the same functional group
- They have similar chemical properties
- Each successive member of a homologous series differs by one carbon and two hydrogen atoms: a -CH2- group
* Understand the terms hydrocarbon, saturated and unsaturated
HYDROCARBONS are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Example: Alkanes, Alkenes, Alcohols...
SATURATED hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons with single bonds only between each carbon atom.
Example: Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons
UNSATURATED hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons with double bonds between each carbon atom.
Example: Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons
* State that alkanes and cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons
Alkanes are cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons because each carbon atom is linked with a single bond.
* Explain the tetrahedral shape around each carbon atom present in an alkane
For alkanes each carbon atom is bonded with four other atoms. Each carbon has a tetrahedral shape with a bond angle of 109.5 degrees.
* State the names of the first ten members of the alkane homologous series