Organic Chemistry

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Things you will know...

By the end of this you should be able to...

  • Understand the terms homologous series and functional group
  • Understand the terms hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated
  • State that alkanes and cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons
  • Explain the tetrahedral shape around each carbon atom present in an alkane
  • State the names of the first ten members of the alkane homologous series
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Lesson 1

* Use the terms homologous series and functional group

A FUNCTIONAL GROUP is the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical properties. The functional group is attached to some point on the carbon backbone of the organic molecule.

A saturated carbon chain has little chemical reactivity. The chemistry of a carbon compound is determined by the functional group.

Molecules with the same functional froup react in a similar way.

A HOMOLOGOUS SERIES is a family of compounds with the following properties:

  • They contain the same functional group
  • They have similar chemical properties
  • Each successive member of a homologous series differs by one carbon and two hydrogen atoms: a -CH2- group
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Lesson 2

* Understand the terms hydrocarbon, saturated and unsaturated

HYDROCARBONS are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Example: Alkanes, Alkenes, Alcohols...

SATURATED hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons with single bonds only between each carbon atom.

Example: Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons

UNSATURATED hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons with double bonds between each carbon atom.

Example: Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons

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Lesson 3

* State that alkanes and cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons

Alkanes are cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons because each carbon atom is linked with a single bond.

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Lesson 4

* Explain the tetrahedral shape around each carbon atom present in an alkane

For alkanes each carbon atom is bonded with four other atoms. Each carbon has a tetrahedral shape with a bond angle of 109.5 degrees.

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Lesson 5

* State the names of the first ten members of the alkane homologous series

Methane= CH4

Ethane= C2H6

Propane= C3H8

Butane= C4H10

Pentane= C5H12

Hexane= C6H14

Heptane= C7H16

Octane= C8H18

Nonane= C9H20

Decane= C10H22

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