Organic Reactions

Reactions of Alkenes

- the general formula of the alkenes, containing 1 C=C bond is:

    Cn = H2n

- complete combustion of an alkene produces carbon dioxide and water

- alkenes react with halogens, hydrogen and water (steam) by adding atoms across the C=C bond, forming a saturated molecule

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Structure of Alcohols, Carboxylic Acids and Esters

- the homologus series of:

    alcohols contains the -OH functional group

    carboxylic acids contains the -COOH functional group

    esters contains the -COO- functional group

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Reactions and Uses of Alcohols

- alcohols are used as solvents and fuels, and ethanol is the main alcohol in alcoholic drinks

- alcohols burn in air, forming carbon dioxide and water

- they react with sodium metal to form a solution of sodium alkoxide, and hydrogen gas is given off

- ethanol can be oxidised to ethanoic acid, either by chemical oxidising agents or by the action of microbes in the air, ethanoic acid is the main acid in vinegar

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Carboxylic Acids and Esters

- solutions of carboxylic acids have a pH value of less than 7, carbonates gently fizz in solutions of carboxylic aids, releasing carbon dioxide gas

- aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids, which are weak acids, have a higher pH value than solutions of strong acids of the same concentration

- esters are made by reacting a carboxylic acid with an alcohol, in the presence of a strong catalyst

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