Organic Chemistry Intro

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Risk vs Hazard

Hazard - The hazard presented by a substance or an activity is its potential to do harm. The potential is absolute. 

Risk - the risk associated with a particular hazard is the chance that it will actually cause harm. 

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Reducing risk

Working on a smaller scale

E.g. less risk of inhaling fumes with smaller amounts of chemicals

Taking specific precautions or using alternative techniques depending on the properties of the hazardous substance you are using. 

E.g. Using the lowest possible concentrations. Chemicals are then irritants, not corrosive.

Careful use of safety measures.

E.g. fume cupboard 

Changing the conditions under which a reaction takes place

E.g. lowering temperature will slow the rate of the reaction down

Using alternative methods with less hazardous substances

E.g substituting chemicals for less hazarous ones.

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Carbon

Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds by sharing electrons with other atoms. 

The arrangement of these are tetrahdral.

Carbons have a unique ability to form a covalent bond with other carbon atoms as well as other non-metals at the same time. 

Carbon molecules always have at least one C-H bond. These bonds are very strong. 

Carbon forms chains as well as complex ring structures.

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Organic Families

Aliphatic - molecules containing straight- or branched- chain carbons

Alicyclic - molecules consisiting of closed rings of carbon atoms. Containing single or multiple C-C bonds. 

Arenes - All derived from the benzene ring.

Unsaturated is a C=C, double bond. Saturated is a C-C, single bond. 

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Functional Groups

Alkanes - A chain of carbon atoms joined by a sngle bond, with hydrogen being the only other atom bonded.  CnH2n+2

Alkenes - A chain of carbon atoms with a double bond. CnH2n

Alcohols - A chain of carbons containing an -OH functional group. CnH2n+1OH

Halogenoalkanes -  CnH2n+1X

Aldehydes - RCHO

Ketones - RCOR

Carboxylic Acids - A chain of carbons containing an -COOH functional group. CnH2n+1COOH

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Functional Groups

(http://scienceaid.co.uk/chemistry/organic/images/nomenclature.jpg)

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Shapes of Molecules

Isomers occur when two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but the atoms are all connected differently.

Vast majority of compounds have two or more isomers. 

Structural Isomerism - Remain part of the same homologous series, however their boiling temeratures differ onsiderably. 

Sterioisomerism - Three dimesional bonds in a molecule allow different possible orientations in space. 

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Shapes of Molecules

Isomers occur when two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but the atoms are all connected differently.

Vast majority of compounds have two or more isomers. 

Structural Isomerism - Remain part of the same homologous series, however their boiling temeratures differ onsiderably. 

Sterioisomerism - Three dimesional bonds in a molecule allow different possible orientations in space. 

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IUPAC System

(http://images.tutorvista.com/content/organic-chemistry/alkanes-nomenclature.gif)

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