Organic Chemistry

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Number names

Hydrocarbons are named after what they are made up of. The beginning of the name comes from how many carbon atoms it has in its longest chain of carbons. 

1 - meth             2 - eth

3 - prop             4 - but

5 - pent             6 - hex

7 - hept             8 - oct

9 - non             10 - dec

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  • Only contain single carbon-carbon bonds
  • Only contain carbon and hydrogen atoms
  • -ane endings
  • Saturated
  • Change colour when reacted with bromine water

General formula: 

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  • Contain at least one carbon-carbon bond
  • Only contain hydrogen and carbon atoms
  • -ene endings
  • Unsaturated
  • Remaine colourless when reacted with bromine water

General formula: 

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  • Contain an oxygen atom (has an O-H group)
  • Contains only carbon-carbon single bonds.

Display formula example:

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Branched Chains

Methyl group: CH3 -

2-methylpropane (diagram)

The number shows on what carbon it is branching off of.

There can be different isomers of the same chemical formula but have a different structural formula. eg. pentane. 

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Crude Oil

Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation in a fractionating column.


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Polymerisation 1

Polymerisation is the reaction of monomers to form polymers.

Addition Polymerisation

- Can only be done with alkenes because they have double bonds/a double bond.

PVC - polyvinylchloride:

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Polymerisation 2

Condensation Polymerisation

  • Two different monomers joined together
  • Linked by eliminating small molecules.

1. Nylon - polyamide

2. Terylene - polyester

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Disposal of Non-biodegradable polymers/plastics

- Burning

       adv: doesn't take up space

       dis: pollution, cost

- Landfill

       adv: less pollution

       dis: smells, takes up space, harmful to environment

- Recycle

       adv: no pollution, can be reused

       dis: cost, plastics lose strength

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