Organelles in a cell

Function of organelles in an cell

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  • Created by: Jo
  • Created on: 26-12-10 14:54

Plasma Membrane

Description

  • Found on the surface of animal cells
  • Found just inside cell wall of plant cell/prokaryotic cells
  • Made of lipids and protein

Function

  • Regulates movement in and out of cell
  • Receptor molecules allow it to respond to chemicals such as hormones

 

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic 

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Cell Wall

Description

  • Rigid
  • Made up of polymer peptidoglycan

Function

  • Supports the cell

 

Eukaryotic* and Prokaryotic (*only plant cells)

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Nucleus

Description

  • Large organelle
  • Has a double membrane containing pores
  • Contains chromatin and the nucleolus

Function

  • Chromatin is made form DNA and proteins
    • DNA controls the cell's activities
  • Pores allow substances to move between nucleus and cytoplasm
  • Nucleolus produces ribosomes

 

Eukaryotic

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Lysosome

Description

  • Round 
  • Membrane bound
  • No clear internal structure

Function

  • Contains digestive enzymes
  • These are seperated from cytoplasm by membrane
  • Digest invading cells
  • Break down damaged parts of cell

 

Eukaryotic

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Plasmid

Description

  • Small loops of DNA which aren't part of the chromosome

Function

  • Contain genes for antibiotic resistance

 

Note: Circular DNA, one long strand of coiled DNA is also present in prokaryotic cell (*not in plasmid)

 

Prokaryotic 

 

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Ribosome

Description

  • Very small
  • Floats in cytoplasm/attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

Function

  • Where proteins are made

 

Eukaryotic

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Description

  • System of membranes enclosing a fluid filled space

Function

  • Synthesises and processes lipids

 

Eukaryotic

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Description

  • A system of membranes covered in ribosomes enclosing a fluid-filled space

Function

  • Folds and processes proteins made at the ribosomes

 

Eukaryotic

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Golgi Apparatus

Description

  • Group of fluid filled flattened sacs

Function

  • Processes and packages lipids and proteins
  • Produces lysosomes

 

Eukaryotic

 

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Mitochondria

Description

  • Oval
  • Double membrane
    • Inner membrane is folded to form structures called cristae
  • Inside is the matrix, containing enzymes involved in respiration

Function

  • Site of aerobic respiration
  • Found in large numbers in cells that are very active and require large amounts of energy (including for active transport)

 

Eukaryotic

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Microvilli

Description

  • Folds in the plasma membrane

Function

  • Found in cells involved in absorption e.g. epithelial cells in small intestine
  • Increase surface area (part of Ficks Law)

 

Eukaryotic

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Capsule

Description

  • A capsule of secreted slime 

Function

  • Protects bacteria from attack by the immune system

 

Prokaryotic

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Flagellum

Description

  • Long, hair-like structure

Function

  • Rotates to make the bacterium move

 

Prokaryotic

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