Organelles and their functions.
A cell consists of various diffenrent organelles which include; mitochondiran, ribosomes, cell membranes, nucleolus, nucleus, nuclear envelope, golgi aparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, centrosomes, cell wall, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, nuclear pore, cilia, flagella and microtubules.
Mitochondrian: These are 0.5 to 10 micrometers structures which consist of a matrix and a membrane. These create energy in the form of ATP.
Choloroplast: These are 3 to 10 micrometers and are found in plant cells and create glucose via photosynthesis. The ultra-violet light is taken in which stimulates a reaction to take place:
6CO₂ + 6H₂O ----Ultraviolet Light---> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
Nucleus: This contains the cells genetic code or the DNA. It is 6 micrometers in diameter. Its function is to control the cell by creating copies of itslef using tRNA and mRNA and sending this as an "Order".
Nucleolus: This is where ribsomes are made for protein synthesis. It is found within the nucleus of a cell. They are generally 25% the size of the nucleus.
Cell Surface Membrane: This contains phospholipids which create a phosphlipid bilayer. It also consists channel proteins, glycoproteins, carrier proteins, glycolipids and cholesterol.
Organelles and there functions continued...
Cell Surface Membrane:
This contains phospholipids which create a phosphlipid bilayer. It also consists channel proteins, glycoproteins, carrier proteins, glycolipids and cholesterol.
Ribosomes: These link amino acids together to form a chain or tertiary structure, a protein. Golgi Aparatus: This modifies and packages any of the cells produce in to vesicles. They ard parts to proteins etc so that they can become specialized structures. These vesicles are sent to the cell surface membrane to be secreted via exocytosis.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER): This packages the products of the ribosomes in to vesicles and sends them to the golgi apparatus or to the cell surface membrane.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER): The SER creates and stores steroids and stores ions in a solution that is used for other cell activity.
Nuclear Envelope: This is essentialy a pore where structures enter and exit the nucleus of a cell.
Nuclear Membrane: The "wall" of the nucleus which keeps everything inside everything else outside the celll.
Lysosomes: Used to destroy unwatnted structures inside the cell. It secretes acid hydrolase enzymes which digest waste material and unwanted cellular debris.
Centrosomes: This is described as the microtubule organising centre (MTOS). They are used in mitosis to transport the chromatids across the cell.
Organelles and their functions continued 2...
Cell Wall: A cells main role of protection and can withstand several times the pressure of 1 atmosphere.
Cytoplasm: Consisting of 80% water it is where cellular reactions take place.
Cilia: Designed to waft mucus and other mixtures through the body in an orderly fashion.
Flagella: Similar to cilia but are used to move bacterial cells, they move like a propeller to move the cell.
Microtubules: Designed to move organelles around the cell and some other structures. Also used to move chromatids in mitosis.