Organelles

Organelles in eukaryotic cells 

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Cell surface membrane

Structure: Double layer of phosphlipid containing protein molecules

Function: Forms a boundary to the cell and controls the entry/exit of molecules

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Nucleus

Structure: A large organelle surrounded by a nucleur envelope with pores. Contains a nucleolus and chromatin

Function: Where chromatin is made from proteins and DNA. The pores allow substances to diffuse from/into cytoplasm. Nucleoulous is where ribosomes are made 

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Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Structure: A system of membrane bound flattened channels with ribosomes covering it's outer surface 

Function: Folds and processes proteins made at the ribosomes

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Lysosome

Structure: A small, round organelle bound by a single membrane containing digestive enzymes

Function: Digest invading cells and break down worn out components 

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Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Structure: A system of membrane bound flattened channels

Function: Synthesises and processes lipids

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Vesicle

Structure: A small fluid filled sac in the cytoplasm 

Function: Transports substances in and out the cell 

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Mitochondria

Structure: A double membrane, the inner one is folded to form structures called cristea. Inside is matrix, containing enzymes involved in repsiration 

Function: The site of aerobic repsiration, where ATP is produced 

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Golgi apparatus

Structure: A group of fluid filled flattened sacs 

Function: Modifies proteins and packages them in vesicles for transport

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Centrioles

Structure: Hollow cylinders, containing a ring of microtubules

Function: Forms a spindle like structure of protein fibres on which chromosomes move during nuclear division 

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Ribosomes

Structure: Very small organelles composed of a large and small subunit 

Function: Carries out protein synthesis by joining amino acids together

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