organelles

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nucleus

function 

control centre, makes rna and protien, containd genteic information

nucleur envelope

a double membrane which surrounds the nucleus, it is continious to rough endoplasmic reticulum

nucleur pores

to control what enters and exits the nucleus, it allows large molecules to pass through such as rna

nucleolus

makes rna and ribosomes 

chromatin

made of dna and proteins, contains genetic information. condenses into visible chromosomes when cells divide

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endoplasmic reticulum

has flattened membrane bound sacs called cisternae 

rough 

has ribosomes stubbed on the membrane 

transports proteins made by attatched ribosomes to the cell membrane, to be secreted , to the golgi apparatus

smooth 

makes lipids needed by the cells

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gogi apparatus

structure

a stack of membrane bound flattened sacs

function

modifies proteins by adding carbohydrates and packaging it in vesicles which can be delivered to the ouside of the cell

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mitochondria

structure

suasage shape 

two membrane

inner membranes folded in a cristae

centre part iscalled the matrix 

function

produces atp during respiration due to large surface area

most activities use energy released from atps

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chloroplast

structure

have two membranes

inner membrane is a network of flattened membrane sacs called thylakoids, a pile is called granum

functions

is the site of the photosynthesis makes

carbohydrates and water

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lysosomes

structure

spherical sacs 

function

contains digestive enzymes to break down material e.g. invading microorganisms 

acrosome helps penetrate the egg membrane so that the sperm cell may enter

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ribosome

structure

consists of two subunits

function

site of protein synthesis 

it uses mrna from the nucleus to make proteins

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centrioles

structure

small tubes of protein fibres 

there is a pair of them next to the nucleus 

funtion 

form spindles during cell division

they move chromosomes 

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