What was the importance of The Populists?
-They assasinated Alexander II in 1881. This weakened rather than strengthened them as the murder of a tsar who favoured reform seemed to be counterproductive.
-Importance lay in methods. 'Going to the people'. Influenced further revolutionary groups which would be important eg: the SRs.
Describe the intentions and actions of the Social Revolutionaries (SRs).
-Intended to attract the rapidly growing urban workforce. Wanted to widen the concept of 'the people' so it encompassed everyone who wanted the destuction of tsarism.
-Split between the 'anarchists' (who wanted to carry on the populist way of terrorist acts) and the 'revolutionaries' (who wanted an immediate improvement to the conditions of workers and peasants, whilst holding a main aim of revolution).
-1901-5 terrorism prevailed. 2,000 political assassinations, including Plehve.
-After 1905, most popular party with peasants. Largest popular party in Russia until outlawed by the Bolsheviks.
Explain why the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks split from the SDs in 1903?
Quarrels between Lenin (Bolsh) and Martov (Mensh)
They had different views:
-Mensheviks believed that Russia was not ready for a proletarian revolution, bourgeois stage had to happen first. Bolsh thought they could happen together.
-Mensh believed membership should be open to all, bolsh thought their party should just be a tight nit organisation of professional revolutionaries.
-Mensh believed in open, democratic discussion within the party, Bolsh thought that the authority should be contained to the Central Commitee of the party.
-Mensh wanted an alliance with all revolutionary parties, Bolsh wanted non-cooperation with other parties.
What is liberalism?
The belief that political and social change could be achieved by reforming rather than destroying the tsarist system.
Who were the Octoberists?
-Group who dated from the issuing of the tsar's manifesto in October 1905.
-Moderates who were basically loyal to the tsar. Regarded the manifesto and creation of the Duma as major constitutional advances.
-Led by Guchkov and Rodzianko. Factory owner and land owner.
-Limited aims, rejected revolution. Believed with 'contructive legislative work' peace could be brought to Russia.
What did the Kadets want?
Russia to develop as a constitutional monarchy, in which the power of the tsar would be restricted by a democratically elected constituent assembly.