Characteristics: Fun, voluntary, spontaneous, social and rules negotiated
Objectives: Children; test boundries, learn social rules Adults;escape from reality, opportunities for creativity.
Benefits: Freedom to engage, immediate pleasure of taking part, freindship building.
Characteristics: Refresh mind and body, recover from stress, be creative.
Objectives: improve mental well being, improve physical well being, creative opportunity.
Society; keeps population occupied, economic benefit, intergrates society
Individual; provide stress releif, entertainment, self fufillment.
Characteristics: co-operation rather than competition, long term participation, pleasent experience.
Objectives: Engage is physical chalenge, maintain general health, develop long term freindships.
Benefits: Increase self esteem, creative opportunities, non serious and enjoyable.
Characteristics: Compulsory, learning of skills, develop understanding of health and fitness.
Objectives and benefits: Develop health and fitness, skills and techniques and social skills. Make it enjoyable and provide competitive experiences,also develop competitive and cooperative attitudes and allow for self expression and creativity.
Characteristics: Takes place in natural environment, challenging with an element of risk,development of skills.
Objectives: Develop awareness of limitations, allow escape from normal routine, allow physically active but with a appreciation of nature.
Benefits: sense of freedom, Handling risks, developing trust in others and leadership skills.
Characteristics: competitive, organised, set rules, regular, vigorous physical exertion.
Objectives: Fulfilling, Challenging, release of tensions, acheive success and build self esteem.
Individual; enjoyment,social skills, sportsmanship,leadership. Society;prevent
ASBO improve international relationships, economic benefits.
Characteristics/goals: facilities to break even not for profit, subsidies for less well off groups, public pay for use, funding provided by local taxation and lottery.
Advantages: Act in the public good, not driven by profit making, resources allocated by local and national taxation.
Disadvantages: Limited funds for improvment, do not have freedom to borrow money for investment, less well of councils can't afford the costs.
Characteristics/goals: Make profit, provide exclusive and high quality facilities, membership charges higher than public sector.
Advantages: React quickly to meet demand, meet individual needs, retrict membership allowing easy accsess/pleasent experience
Dissadvantages: Cost of joining and fees for use, numbers resriction, degree of social exclusion and therefor sport may suffer, talent may not be disscovered.
Characteristics: not for profit, supported by match fees/subs, volunteers fill managment roles, funds raised via fundraising and can also be supported by the lottery.
Advantages: Based on enthusiasm and love for the sport, exists for the community and the benefit of those involved, lots of opportunity can be provided.
Dissadvantages:Unplanned and uncontrolled, continuity can't be garrunteed, financial support cannot be garrunteed, social exclusion can still occur.
Atheleticism: Fanatical devotion to both the physical side of playing also the development of moral integrity.
Fair play: playing the activity fairly and obeying rules.
Muscular christianity: idea that healthy body and mind are needed to serve god.
Characeristics of public schools: uppper and middle class, fee paying and exclusive, rural and residential/ boarding, bullying and strict discipline.
Characteristics of state school: free of charge,built localy, limited space, no facilities, educated both sexes.
Sport used as Social control: Positive use of leisure time, played in school grounds, obeying rules developed sportsmanship and fair play, learnt teamwork, junios teachers acted as players and games were approved by headmasters, inter school fixtures brought boys together.
Moral development: code of conduct, sportsmanship, respect,teamwork, leadership.
Technical: played regularly, developed rules, equipment used, kit used, officials used, competitions developed.
Sport development: Orginial versions from home villages, played regularly, rules developed, equal numbers on each side, devised boundries, established standard equipment and kit.
Upper class as controllers: well educated, high social status, lots of leisure time to fill, wanted the control, working class did not have the power or skills.
Development of excellence: Boys played regularly and develop skills, allowed talent to be spotted and elite groups to be formed, facilities and coaching standards increase as more is understood, competetive opportunities and the social status that now came with winning.
Sport spreading from the P.schools: british empire spreading it through colonies, employees through employers, clergy through church, teachers to other schools, creating national governing bodies.
Rational recreation: played regularly, teams wore kits, spectators developed, skills improved, balls and goal posts introduced.
Why NGB?: sport became more popular, more and more clubs formed, needed to be fair, sports need structure and organising, national set of rules was needed.
Mob footie characteristics: Local, unsructured, unwritten rules, violent, no skill involved, cheap, working class males.
Decline of mob footie: banned by authorities, dissordily, lack of space, increased working hours, development of sport.
Upper/middle class; amateur sports, sports requiring facilities, controlled sports with NGB.
Working class; sports offering jobs e.g; boxing football, could be part of ground staff maintaining and carrying equipment, spectating.
Church involvment: social control, wanted to improve morals of working class, improve health, encouraged civilised activities, allowed sunday clubs and provided facilities.
Working class and sport difficult?: lack of leisure time, lack of funds, limited space, encouraged to spectate rather than participate, limited demand for profeesionals.