Opponents to the Tsarist System

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  • Created by: Holly
  • Created on: 10-05-14 18:53

The Social Revolutionaries

  • Wanted to take land form the Tsar, nobles and the Church
  • Give more land to the mir and village communes
  • So peasants could have a bigger share of land
  • 'Fighting Organisation' to organise terrorist campaigns
  • Between 1900 - 1905 the 'Fighting Organisation' killed three government ministers and dozens of government officials
  • SR's gained support from millions of peasants who wanted their own land
  • However SR's were weakened by disagreements among themselves
  • Almost two groups, 'Left SR's' and 'Right SR's'
  • Between 1901 - 1905 the SR's were responsible for over 2000 political assinatations
  • But they failed to bring around the desired link between urban workers
  • Land policy that kept them popular with the peasants
  • Further disagreements in the party led them to being collections of radical groups
  • Despite this, until the Bolsheviks outlaws them in 1917, the SR's remained the most popular party in Russia.
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The Social Democrats

  • Followed the Marxist idea, that a violent revolution will overthrow the capitalists and share everything they make and earn
  • Set up in 1898
  • Leaders quickly began to arugue and in 1903 they split to the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
  • The Bolsheviks wanted a quick revolution, organised by a small group of dedicated and skilled revolutionaries
  • The Mensheviks wanted to wait for the Capitalist phase to run its course
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The 1905 Revolution

  • Nicolas II continued with his father's Statue of State Security from 1881
  • Strikes grew in the industrial cities
  • More peasant discontent as taxes grew and land holding decreased
  • Tensions grew after the humiliating defeat of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905
  • January 22nd 1905, Bloody Sunday
  • Mass murder of a peacful protesting Putilov factory workers
  • This led to a wave of revolutionary activity across Russia
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12 Months leading after 'Bloody Sunday'

  • Tsar's uncle was assinated on the 4th of Feb
  • 3 million people came out on strike
  • Major clashes between police and strikers
  • Peasant sburnt down manor houses, looted lords' grain stocks, illegally felled trees
  • In May a National Peasants' Union was formed
  • In June Potemkin sailors mutinied, followed by Kronstadt sailors and in the ranks of the Far Eastern Army
  • National minorities fought for their independance, Georgia, Finland and Poland
  • St. Petersburg Soviet was set up in Oct, led by Trotsky.
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Why did Nicholas II survive the 1905 revolution

  • Using the 'October Manifesto' offered a national elected assembly - the Duma
  • It also promised civil rights like freedom of speech, assembly and worship
  • It also satisfied the demands of the Liberals, like the Kadets and Octoberists
  • He also promised to reduce then abolish redemption payments
  • Led to immediate reduction in level of peasant uprisings
  • Most of the army stayed loyal
  • Troops from the Russo-Japanese war used to disperse St. Petersburg Soviet
  • The Moscow Soviet, influenced by Lenin was violently suppressed in January 1906, this signalled the end of the revolution
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Nicholas II's rule 1906-14

  • As soon as the immediate crisis was over Nicholas goes back on his promises and sets up the Fundamental Laws
  • The Fundamental Laws lets him over ride any laws made by the Duma
  • This allowed Nicholas to hold onto his autocratic power without giving much away to the Duma
  • As a result many of the represntitives of the people elected to the Duma were fuming
  • He dismissed the first two Dumas in 1906 and 1907 when they complained about The Fundamental Laws
  • Tsar's chief minister altered the voting system to favour the rich, this meant the thrid and fourth Dumas were more loyal to the Tsar, which lasted from 1907-19017
  • This again reduced power of the Duma
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The Impact of the First World War

  • Military Defeats
  • Difficult living conditions
  • Role of the Tsarina and Rasputin
  • Failure to make political reforms
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The February Revolution 1917 and the end of Tsaris

  • Russian political and economical system could not deal with the ravages of WW1
  • Russia saw a rise in the number of demonstartions after 1914
  • One such outbreak happened in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) in Feb 1917 

Events unfolded as follows:

Feb 14th - 80,000 demonstrated in support of the Duma

Feb 18th - Putilov strike

Feb 23-25th - demostrations against food shortages

Feb 26th - 40 demonstrators shot by troops

Feb 27th - Volynsky regiment mutinied and refused to shoot demonstrators

  • Feb 27th until March 2nd saw a wave of revolutionary disturbances throughout Russia
  • Kronstadt naval base munitied, workers seized factories and attacked managers and peasants seized land and illegaly felled trees. National minorities in Russia took their indpendence
  • Duma formed  commitee to try and persuade Nicholas to set up a constitutional monarch
  • Nicholas was travelling back on a train when he was forced to ABDICATED

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