On The Wild Side

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  • Created by: iqra
  • Created on: 11-09-12 19:37

Pollen Analysis

Pollen Analysis

How is it measured?

  • Carbon 14 dating is used to establish the age of a particular peat
  • Pollen grains has distictive shapes, features and surface structures

- Pollens taken from its region

- The samples are taken into regular intervals e.g 10cm

- Pollen grains are separated

- Grains are stained

- Using an electron microscope

- To identify different species the plants come from.

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How is it measured?

  • Using an thermometer
  • 100 stations are put in place all over the globe to measure the average temperature
  • Long term data is recorded
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How is it measured ?

  • By seeing the thickness of the trees rings

~ The wider the rings - the hotter the climate

                                   - Sunny, rainy, moist

~ The narraw the rings - the cooler the climate

                                     - droughts, dry

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Greenhouse effect

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Global Warming

Global warming

High concentration of greenhouse gasses getting trapped in the atmosphere results to enhanced greenhouse effect.

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Percentage increase

bigger - smaller / original X 100

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Light Dependent Reactions

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Light Dependent ractions

Light gets absorbed by chlorophyll.

The excited electrons gets boosted up to a higher energy level

The electrons are accepted and passed along a chain of carriers

Enough energy is made to make photophosphorylate

ATP is made by ADP and Phosphate. Reducing NADP is made by NADP and the splitting of water (Photolysis) the H+ is attatch to the NADP they both help make a carbohydrate

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Light Independant Reaction


RUBISCO --- 3 hexose

3 hexose --- GAL


2/12 GALP makes amino acid proteins lipids

10/12 makes

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