Migration, Involuntary Migtration, Voluntary Migra
- Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.
- Involuntary migration is when people are forced to migrate (slave trade, ethnic cleansing).
- Voluntary migration is when people move by choice (for money).
- An economic migrant is someone who moves in seek of a job.
- An asylum seeker is somone fleeing from their country in fear of their safety (during a war).
European Migration from the UK to Spain
1.8 million properties in Spain are owned by foreign nationals, 600,000 of whom are British. Over 60% of these are over the age of 45, mostly for retirement, business opportunities or better weather.
Push factors are things that make people want to leave an area and move elsewhere. In terms of Brits moving to Spain, here are some push factors:
- bad weather
- high housing prices
- high tax
- high cost of living
- higher crime rates
- rapid urbanisation
- lack of culture
- declining health care
Continuation of Migration from the UK to Spain
Pull factors are things that draw people in to a certain area. In terms of Brits moving to Spain, here are some pull factors:
- better weather
- lower living costs
- top health care
- familiar culture
- lower crime rates
- increased state of health
- cheaper housing
- good exchange rate
However, the amount of migration from the UK to Spain is having some negative effects on Spain itself. These include: rising crime, noise pollution, loss of culture, lack of water and a lack of space.
UK Migration in the EU
Country Residents from the UK
European Migrants to the UK
The EU trading bloc has made it easier for migration to happen within Europe as there are fewer border controls. This was origanally done to make trade easier. However, the UK did not sign this as it is an island so it's easier to check (airports, ports).
Host country - a place that migrants go to. For example, the UK - 62% of migrants in the UK are from Poland. Most of these are economic migrants and 7300 Polish people applied to come to England in 2006.
Source country - a place that migrants come from, e.g. Poland.
The UK has a large temporary guest workforce (farming). However, this has recently declined because of the current economic state.
Positives and Negatives to European Migration
For the host country e.g the UK
Positives - fills gaps in the labour marekt, migrants spend their money there and migrants bring culture (e.g. food).
Negatives - some migrants are a burden on services (education), many are low skilled workers therefore may be not be needed and it leads to a greater demand for resources (housing).
For the source country e.g. Poland
Positives - migrants send money home to their families (this accounts for 10% of their GDP), unemployment is reduced and less resources are used (land).
Negatives - key workers leave the country which results in slow economic growth, young people leave which leads to an ageing population and there are fewer new ideas.