After the execution of Charles I in 1649 for the first time England was left without a monarch. The most powerful person in the country was the person who controlled the army and that was Oliver Cromwell.
After the Irish rebellion during Charles I's reign England and Ireland did not get on very well and in 1649 Cromwell stormed into Drogheda in Ireland and fought with the Irish army and whilst fighting the army brutally attacked thousands of innocent people.
'The Rump' was the parliament that was left after the Royalists had left. Cromwell had hoped that England would become a more Godly place and give freedom to Protestants so they could worship as they wished. He wanted 'The Rump' to organise elections so the people who decide who they wanted in Parliament but 'The Rump' didn't want any of these things. Cromwell got very frustrated and got rid 'The Rump' in 1653.
In 1653 parliament mad Cromwell Lord Protector. A new parliament had been elected but Cromwell wasn't get on very well with them. They had trouble straight away because they wanted to restrict the way people worshiped God. In 1655 Cromwell dismissed parliament.
Cromwell tried a new experiment where England was divided into 11 districts and was ruled by a Major General, this was very unpopular.
Cromwell was fast running out of ideas. People were fed up of the army being in control and the high taxes they had to pay.
Many people thought the only way to restore order was to bring back the monarchy but they didn't want Charles II. In 1657 Cromwell was offered the crown but he declined