Oils and Fats
Naturally occuring tri-esters of glycerol and long chain fatty acids.
Either Saturated or Unsaturated.
Saturated fatty acids produce solids and fats
Unsaturated produce liquids and oils.
The oil or fat can be broken down by hydrolysis .
Heating with dilute NaOH (sodium hydroxide) hydrolyses the ester to its fatty acid salt and glycerol . To produce a free fatty acid it needs to be treated with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCL).
Hydrogenation is used to convert unsaturated fatty acids to more saturated (single bonds) ones. However not all the c-c double bonds become saturated so they remain as polyunsaturated molecules.
To make a amine from a halogenoalkane
heat in a sealed tube with conc NH3 aq . Halogenoalaknes react by nucleophilic substitution.