OCR PE AS Level - Contemporary studies in PE (the new topics for the current syllabus)

Th current sylabus has some new topics e.g USA Oz and Public Schools


The USA is relatively young - just 200 years old - deeming it new and vulnerable

By 1980 half a million immigrants each year moved to the USA

The USA became a mix of different religions and cultures

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Nature of Sport in the USA

  • Win ethic - win at all costs
  • Commercialism
  • Vehicle for achieveing the 'American Dream'

American football Origins:

  • Early 1800s - no generally accepted rules
  • Rough, wild - some universities banned it
  • First University match 1869 - Princeton vs Rutgers
  • By 1900 - dangerous, violent, sensational
  • Physical force decided the outcome
  • Little protective clothin/serious injury/death
  • Characteristics - toughness, endeavour, ferocious, courage and phyciality which reflected 'frontier spirit' of early settlers
  • Taken over by big buisnesses from 1945
  • Many universities went into debt to build facilities
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American football - nature of the game

  • highly organises
  • hugely tactical/complicated
  • tough/dangerous/violent
  • fast/skilful
  • specialised - quarterback as 'general'
  • 11-a-side: with huge squads

"Rugby is a beastly game played by gentlemen. Football is a gentlemen's game played by beasts. American football is a beastly game played by beasts." - Baltimore Rugby club member 1972

American football is described as:

  • Mobile chess - because of its stop start motions
  • a mixture between brute force and science
  • in this game there are no winners - only survivors

Vince Lombardi - famous american football coach

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A healthy economic start plus ideology of individualism lead to an economic system of individual enterprise known as capitalism

Capitalism - individual or shared ownership of buisness for profit

Capitalism ecourages individuals to accumlate wealth and directing influences the nature of sport in the USA which is a huge profit orientated buisness

"Sport is a mirror of society"

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Aussie Rules

  • known as 'footy'
  • game is hard and physical but has a solid rule structure and strong culture of fair play
  • Originally devised by Tom Wills
  • intended as a winter training game for cricketers
  • Wills combined aboriginal leaping games with the football tyle game her played as a student at Rugby school in the mid 19th century

Factors that have shaped the development of the game

  • media
  • australians travelling abroad
  • players have conveerted from other styles of football
  • schools have pathway programmes

Commericialism of the game:

  • most highly attended sport in australia
  • flourished with commercialism
  • emerged as a result of the golden triangle
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Characteristics of Australia

  • young country
  • aboriginal origins
  • claimed as a colony of Britain in 1770
  • Colonialism
  • population of 21 million
  • majority of country is uninhabitat
  • 85% of people live on 3% of land
  • multiculturalism

Nature of sport in Oz:

  • sport is a high status nation pre-occupation
  • Australians are obsessed with sport
  • favourable climate and natural resources (beaches)
  • pioneering spirit and endeavour of the early settlers which mirrors the requirement of success in modern sport
  • sport is a fashionable past time amoung a relatively young population
  • Cathy freeman - role model
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Public Schools

"An independent, non-;ocal, predominantly boarding school for the upper and middle classes."

Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, St.Pauls, Merchant Taylors, Harrow, Rugbu and Shrewsbury


  • Endowed - moveny left by a patron to the school
  • Boarding - people would board at the school over term period
  • Fee paying - those who attend the school would have to pay to go there
  • Spartan - very brutal conditions and environment to live in. Older pupils would treat younger pupils as slaves
  • Sons of gentry - rich background, from rich families (lords, dukes, squires)
  • Trustees - in modern terms, like a governer. They ran the schools appointing teachers and head teachers
  • Non-local - some people would have to travel for days in order to attend
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Three phases

1. (1790-1828: bullying and brutality)

  • from violence of mob football to sedateness of cricket, casual boating to informal games against a wall 'Instituationalised popular recreation' (poaching and blood sports) these were activities they played
  • They played during their freetime ouside lessons
  • they played whenever possible the school grounds and surround countryside
  • They played for recreational purposes and to relieve boredom
  • Boys behaving like hooligans with the informally arranged activities, ranging from childlike, to barbaric
  • Low organisation and structure - reflection of recreation in society
  • Swimming was informal and spontaeous bathing in natural facilities
  • Rowin was casual boating with boats hired from local boatyards
  • Athletics were village 'folk'sports such as hunting, poaching, trespassing, running, exploring the countryside
  • football and rugby were played as mob games (cloister football at charterhouse)
  • court and racket games, informal (fives- a hand ball game) Tennis against suitable walls/buildings - not law tennis which wasnt invented until 1980's
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Phase two(1828-42- Dr Thomas Arnold and social con

  • They played growing programme games and individual activities as well as boating
  • they played more often every afternoon
  • the school grounds were where it was played, trespassing outside curtailed and transport not yet freely available for full programme or interschool or club matter
  • they were helf for social control
  • the games aimed to play the boys as christian gentlemen
  • incredibly organised, structure and regulated. Inter house basis
  • Swimming was held on a more regular basis and regulated bathing for hygeine, safety and recreational purposes
  • more organises rowing occured - rowing clubs and master involvment
  • Atheletics was restricted and some activities banned because they gave the school a bad name and were against christian ethics
  • football became the place for settling disputes and showing courage and determination - more formalised rules for football
  • Cricket continued (still encouraged due to its non-violent nature) rule structured and upper class involvement
  • Interhouse matches
  • court and racquets games had some purpose built facilities
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Phase 3:(1842-1914 - athleticism - 'the cult')

  • A full games and athletics programme according to governing body rules especially the major games of cricket and rugby, association football
  • sport was daily and often compulsory
  • Magnificent games fields, purpose built facilities hosted the activities. They were on-site and at awat matches against clubs/schools
  • They were played fror character development
  • sport was played as an obsession or cult/ v. good standards. full structure, organisation, kit, equipment and regulations with sportsmanship and fair play
  • swimming was for recreation, health, safety and competitive purposes. changing huts diving boards purpose built facilities galas ans attendents were introduced
  • rowing clubs were introduced. School boats oxbridge blues and coaches
  • athletics - cross country running steeple chasing and cadet corps. school sports days as major sporting events and social occasions
  • formal rules, colours, caps, inter-school fixtures,
  • fives continued as a recreational game. racquets as more formal games of higher status. Also squash, lawn tennis in girls' schools, low status in boys schools
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'The wheel round which the moral values turned'

  • Training of gentleman
  • moral/christian values
  • muscular christianity
  • antidote to homosexuality
  • character building
  • team spirit
  • qualities of leadership
  • need for discipline
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Impact of Public Schools

  • Importance of team games
  • Codefied sports
  • made sport sociall acceptable
  • introduced a strong moral code of amateurism - no payment or profit
  • Distinction between amateur and professional
  • provided a basis for the modern olympic games
  • creation of facilities
  • blueprint for other schools

Universities - Oxbridge blues, governing bodies, old boys clubs, army, civil service, church, captains of industry

Values: taking part is more important than winning, sportsmanship as opposed to gamesmanship

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19th Century public schools and amateurism and pro

  • The 19th century was a great time of change and it laster from 1800 -1900
  • In the 19th centry, public schools such as rugby school promoted and organised sports and games
  • Public boarding schools had space and money for sporting facilities and time to play
  • Games were thought to develop character and were organised at both inter-house and inter-shool level
  • On leaving school and later university public school boys took team games into industry, the community etc
  • and amateur takes part in sport voluntarily for the love of the game
  • in recent years sport has adopted a more professional approach and is serious, skilful and can be profitable
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Theses notes are awesome

thank you for sharing them :)

Have you got aquiring movements skills?

Thx Rosa



The aquiring movement skills notes are on Bethan's profile. If you click on her name and go to the last page they're there. And they are really helpful may I add :)

Zoe Daniels


Your biology and PE notes are insannnne! Thank you sooo much!

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