OCR AS ICT Unit 1 Chapter 6

  • Created by: Sqd3
  • Created on: 18-04-14 14:09

Chapter 6 - Characteristics of Documents

Characteristics of Documents:

  • Characters - Any letter, number or symbol used in a document.
  • Paragraphs - Portions of text, usually in a larger document.
    • Have a pre-defined style to it.
    • Use of a carriage return at the end of the text.
  • Sections - A portion of a document in which page-formatting options can be set.
  • Frames - An area of a page containing text or graphics.
  • Headers - Text that appears on a document in the top margin of every page.
    • May include the creator's name, title and date.
  • Footers - Text that appears on a document in the bottom margin of every page.
    • May include page numbering and date.
  • Footnotes - A note commenting on a point in a document, printed in the body of text.
    • Reference numbers
  • Pages - Side(s) of a document.
    • Includes text, graphics etc.
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Chapter 6 - Mail Merge

Process of Mail Merge:

  • 1) Data source created.
  • 2) Standard document created with merge fields.
  • 3) Data source and standard document links and merged.
  • 4) Personalised document printed/sent

Disadvantages & Advantages of Mail Merge:

  • Documents can be produced quickly.
  • Only one copy needs to be proofread to ensure that all are correct.
  • Data source can be used for many different mail merges.
  • Standard template can be reused.
  • Letter can sound generic.
  • Can be used to create vast amount of junk mail
  • Data source must be kept up to date for it to be useful.
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Chapter 6 - Reformatting Documents

Users can format the attributes of documents including:

  • Page size, settings and orientation
  • Text position, size and style.

Page size, settings and orientation:

  • Page size and paper to be printed.
  • Page margins, headers/footers
  • Landscape or Portrait

Text position, size and style:

  • Text alignment.
  • Font type/size
  • Text styles (e.g. bold/italic/underline)
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Chapter 6 - Clip Art & Thumbnails

Clip Art Images:

  • Readily and Immediately Available.
  • Usually free or cheap to obtain.
  • No extra hardware needed (e.g. camera)
  • Limited choice of images.
  • Quality is variable (can be poor to good)
  • May not be original or unique.
  • May be subject to copyright.

Thumbnail Images:

  • Many images can be viewed at the same time
  • Images that are alike can be grouped together
  • Descriptions can be added to images so they can be searched for
  • The quality of images may be poor
  • If the library has lots of images, it can take a long time to load one
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Chapter 6 - Vector & Bitmap Graphics

Bitmap Graphics - Are made up of pixels, each with a position on the image grid and a colour value.

  • Stored as pixels.
  • Quality is reduced when resizing
  • Each pixel is saved individually > larger file size than vector graphics
  • Screen resolution can affect the image quality.
  • Can be compressed
  • Can deal well with highly detailed images (e.g. photographs)


  • Bitmap graphics are produced when a scnaner or camera is used.
  • Can be saved in different formats - BMP, GIF, JPEG and TIFF
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Chapter 6 - Vector & Bitmap Graphics

Vector Graphics - Contain mathematical data that defines the key properties of every element in the graphic.

  • Can be resized with no loss of definition.
  • Smaller file size than bitmap graphics.
  • Can't be compressed.
  • High processing power to display.
  • Can't be grouped.

 - Used for design purposes and in CAD programs. It's used by architects and designers, where it allows users to change sizes, perspectives and proportions of components in their drawings.

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Chapter 6 - Graphics Libraries

Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphics Libraries:

  • Industry-standard symbols are available.
  • Symbols will be internationally recognised.
  • Images required will all be stored in one place.
  • May be difficult to keep up to date.
  • New components may not be immediately available.
  • Componenets may be added that aren't used or available.


  • Kitchen Design: include standard symbols for cupboards and kitchen appliances
  • Cartography: include symbols used by the Ordnance Survey so maps created for specific purposed will use the symbols on standard maps
  • Network Design: include industry-standard symbols for the main components in a network e.g. servers, routers and cabling
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Chapter 6 - Features of Presentations

Features of Presentation Software:

  • Text:
    • Text must meet the needs of the audience. 
    • Style/size and amount must be considered
  • Images:
    • Helps convey a message relating to the presentation.
    • Copyright must be considered
    • No. of images should be kept to a minimum and at a suitable size.
  • Sound:
    • Sound effects can be set with animation effects.
    • Help emphasise pieces of information, but can distract the audience.
  • Video:
    • Can be played automatically.
    • Too many videos can distract audience.
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Chapter 6 - Features of Presentations

  • Animation:
    • Visual effects can be added to emphasise important points.
    • Helps controls the flow of the slide in the presentation.
    • Order and timing can be changed.
  • Slide Transition:
    • Transition effects can be applied to make the presentation more interesting.
    • Speed of transitions can be set.
  • Hyperlinks:
    • Coloured and underlined text or a graphic which, when clicked, takes the user to a file, location in a file, or a website.
  • Hotspots:
    • An area on a screen which responds to a mouse click.
    • This could be text/graphic that takes users to another page.
  • Buttons:
    • Used to move from one slide to the next.
    • Makes the presentation interactive due to user interactions.
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Chapter 6 - Delivering a Presentation

Computer and Projector Presentations:

  • Wide range of features to use (e.g. hyperlinks/video)
  • Presentation can be saved and easily edited
  • Doesn't have to followed in slide sequence
  • The quality of slides does not worsen with use
  • Features can be overused e.g. sounds, animations
  • Large initial cost (e.g. buyiing computer and projector)
  • Software needed to edit slides in real time
  • Power cut will stop the use
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Chapter 6 - Delivering a Presentation

Printed acetate and overhead porjector (OHP)

  • Slides can be annotated to explain/highlight points
  • Relatively cheap and rarelt goes wrong
  • If there's a power cut, presenter can still read slides
  • Special features can't be used
  • Difficult to jump to an out of sequence slide
  • To edit a slide, a new one must be printed
  • Quality deteriorates with use
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Chapter 6 - Modes of Navigation

Manual Transition:

  • Involves action from the viewer to move on to the next slide.
  • Allows the viewer to run the presentation at their chosen speed.
  • Can navigate to other areas in the presentation.

Automatic Transition:

  • Involves setting up a presentation to run automatically with no intervention required.
  • Timings can be set up to change slides after a pre-specified time period.
  • Suitable for presentations where no presenter is required.
  • Not suitable for verbal presenations as the presenter has to keep up with the pace of the slides.
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Chapter 6 - Presentation Structures

Linear - Slides are shown in a pre-determined order through a consecutive manner. Slides frollow in a line from start to finish.

  • Predicatable - Every audience will see exactly the same presentation.
  • Easy to present - presentation runs in the same order.
  • Simple to prepare handouts - due to it being in the same order
  • Not very interactive with the audience - since order can't be changed.
  • Can be boring - audience have to view slides that may be irrelevant to them

Non-Linear - Slides can be accessed in any order.

  • Slides can be accessed in any order.
  • Can be tailored to meet the needs of the audience.
  • Can be customised for different audiences
  • Structure can be complicated to create.
  • Need to incorporate navigation method into the slides (e.g. action buttons).
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Chapter 6 - Presentation Structures

Hiearchical - Allows different but pre-determined slides to be jumped to from a slide depending on an option already selected.

  • Options can be selected to meet the needs of the audience.
  • Cannot jump to slides that are out of sequence
  • May not find the information required if it's out of sequence.
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