Empire Windrush (1948)
This is the point where it all kinda started for 1940's england. The Empire Windrush was a ship which arrived in the Uk in 1948 bringing with it 492 passengers from the caribbean wishing to start new lives in England but they appeared to be highly dissapointed.
The Orbita brought 180 passengers to Liverpool later in 1948.
The next year 253 passengers arrived on the Georgic.
Immigration during the Atlee government (1945 - 19
During this period many POW's and other immigrants were recruited to work and help rebuild Britain after war time, during the Atlle government 345,000 aliens were recruited. Many Eastern Europeans left Europe to escape Communism.
The British Nationality Act (1948)
This entitled any country listed in the Commonwealth of Nations citizens to come and settle in Britain. This caused the immigration of a large number of Indians to immigrate over even though they were no longer part of the empire but were now a part of the commonwealth.
Reasons to emigrate
- Increased likelihood of work - after WW2 Britain was home to some severe labour shortages, this lack of workforce enticed many immigrants from foreign countries, recruitment campaigns were run in the West Indies to attract workers.
- Romantic vision of Britain - In addition to the obvious material benefits of living in Britain, they believed Britain was the "mother country" and their image of it was highly romanticised.
- Economic problems at home - Immigrants did not come from wealthy countries, many immigrated Pakhistan after the Mangla Dam submerged 250 villages and displaced 100,000 people.
- Fear at home - Many left their countries amid fear of violence for example in the partitioning of India and Pakhistan as many as 2 million died as a result of communal violence.
- Expulsion - Some people were expelled from their countries for example Idi amin expelled 60,000 asian Ugandans for somehow controlling the economy.
"Those arriving in London for the first time from 1948 onwards had high expectations. Often based on faulty information. The source of this wrong information was largely the formal education given by the established churches and colonies.
Facts UK Immigration statistics
1948-53 28,000 immigrants
1957 42,400 immigrants
1961 115,510 immigrants
This is a period and then the amount of people who immigrated to Britain during it.
Notting Hill riots (1958)
The Notting Hill riots took place in 1958, on the night of saturday 30th August in Notting Hill a mob of 300 to 400 teddy boys attacked the houses of west indian members of the Noting hill community. During the week many police officers were found to be very unsupportive of Black people and chose not to take their comments very seriously and offering very little help. 140 people were arrested not only white people though also many black people found carrying weapons.
Commonwealth immigration act (1962)
This was the first act which imposed restrictions on the commonwealths ability to enter Britain and stated that only those with a voucher for immigration or grandparents in Britain could enter other restrictions were of course true. This happened under the Labour governement as a response to an increase to racial tension.
Race relations act (1965)
This was the first act passed to address racial discrimination in Britain. It outlawed discrimination on the basis of race colour or ethnic origins in public places.
Bristol Bus Boycott (1963)
This boycott arose from the refusal of the Bristol Omnibus company to employ black or Asian bus crews in Bristol. Members of the West Indian development council boycotted the buses for four months until the colour bar was overturned.
Enoch Powell "Rivers of Blood" (1968)
In 1968 Enoch Powell made a speech criticising immigration and the proposed anti-discrimination legislation. It is called the "Rivers of Blood" speech because of how it alludes to Virgils "Aeneid", from his quote "As I look ahead I am filled with much foreboding like the Roman I seem to see the river Tiber foaming with much Blood". He said this to quote the part of the poem quoting terrible wars, which perhaps indicates his fear of much conflict inbetween black and white citizens of the UK and may also link back to the Notting Hill riots of 1958 and the Bristol bus Boycott of 1963.
National front established (1967)
The party was formed in 1967 and reached its peak popularity in the 1979 election where it gained just over 0.5% of the votes. It was formed in retaliation
Contribtution to society
Overall Immigrants have made a massive contribtuion to society in any ways for examle..
- They established permanent communities
- THey had a very positive economic impact.
- THey started festivals for example the Notting Hill carnival - THis was created after the murder of Kelso Cochrane, and the founder of th Notting Hill carnival was Claudia Jones a black nationalist and feminist.
- Music - Bob Marley was a massively well established musician and also Jamaican.