Advantages of an internal skeleton compared to an
• Can grow with our body without requiring shedding of skeleton.
• Makes it easier to attach muscles to bone
• Increases the flexibility of our bodies.
Cartilage and bone are ____ what tissues? This mea
• Both cartalidge and bone are living tissues.
• Both are therefore in danger of infection
• Both can grow and repair themselves.
Structure of the long bone? And why are they made
• The long bone has a head with a shaft of bone marrow and blood vessels.
• Long bones are hollow, making them stronger than solid bones.
How are the bones in our skeleton made?
1. The bones start off as cartilage
2. The cartilage is replaced by calcium and phosphorus.
3. This proccess is called ossification. Future growth is measured by amounts of cartilage present in a person.
Why are old people more prone to bones breaking?
• Despite being very strong, bones can be easily broken by a sharp knock.
• Elderly people are more prone to fractures due to soft bones (osteoporosis).
• Osteoporosis is the loss of calcium from bones making them more brittle.
Danger of moving someone with a fracture?
• Someone with a bone fracture is in danger of causing internal damage to tissues surrounding the broken bone.
Structure of a synovial joint.
• Cartilage reduces friction. Acts as a shock absorber.
• Synovial fluid lubricates the joint
• Tendon joins muscle to bone enabling movement.
• Ligament joins bone to bone, stabilizing the joint.
Antagonistic pairs are what?
The prime mover contracts and the antagonist relaxes.
Examples of antagonistic pairs working are:
• The quadriceps and hamstrings in the leg
• The biceps and triceps in the arm
What is a single circulatory system?
Bellow is an example of a single circulatory system. It is found in fish.
• Atrium and Ventricle - Deoxygenated
What is a double circulatory system?
• Right side of heart - Deoxygenated
• Left side of heart - Oxygenated
Who was Galen and William Harvey?
• Was a Greek philosopher.
• He discovered the pulse.
• He did not know about the chambers.
• Was a butcher and scientist.
• He discovered the concept of arteries and veins.
• He was unable to discover capillaries because they were too small.
• He was able to do his research due to dissection of humans.
What are the parts of a heart?
Nodes of the heart are what?
Sinoatrial Node, or the SAN:
• These cells control the rate of contraction (the heart rate).
• Found in the right atria.
• Electrical impulses cause atrial systole. The atria contracts.
AtrioVentricular Node or the AVN:
• The electrical signal of the Sinoatrial node is picked up.
• This causes the ventricles to contract.
• This pushes blood from the bottom up though the aorta and pulmonary artery.
What are the fit, unfit and average pules rates?
• At resting pace, anything from 60 to 70 is considered an average pulse rate.
• At resting pace, anything above 70 is considered unfit.
• At resting pace, anything bellow 60 is considered to be very fit.
What is an ECG and a Echocardiogram
• Can detect problems with heart rhythm.
• Can tell if you are having a heart attack, or have had one in the past.
• Picks up the electrical signals of the heart.
• Gives accurate information about the valves, and chambers of the heart.
• Uses high frequency waves of energy, which passing through the skin echo off various parts of the heart. This shows a picture of our heart.
• It is useful when finding abnormalities in the hearts of new born babies, it is a painless process.
What can we fix faulty pacemaker cells? An irregul
• The use of an artifical pacemaker can stop this.
• They are powered by small batteries.
The types of heart disease?
• irregular heart beat.
• hole in the heart.
• damaged or weak valves.
• coronary heart disease and heart attacks.
What is a hole in the heart?
• The septum which prevents oxygenated and deoxygenated blood from mixed has a hole in it.
• This allows the blood to mix, which can cause tiredness and being out of breath.
Things which can effect our circulatory system?
How the heart beats?
1. The sinoartial node sends an electrical signal when blood fills your right atrium.
2. The electrical signal causes artial systole. Both atrium contract.
3. The tricuspid valve opens briefly. The bicuspid valve opens briefly.
4. The right ventricle fills with blood. The left ventricle fills with blood.
5. Electrical activity makes the AtrioVentricular Node produce an electrical signal.
6. The signal causes ventricular systole. Both ventricle contract.
7. The pulmonary valve opens briefly. The aortic valve opens briefly.
8. Blood is sent through the aorta towards the body.
9. Blood is sent through the pulmonary artery towards the lungs.
The path of air from mouth to lungs?
1. Air passes down the trachea
2. Then splits into two bronchi
3. Then splits into smaller branches of bronchioles
4. Then the air goes into tiny sacs called alveoli
How do our kidneys work?
1. Blood passes into the kidneys through the renal artery.
2. Blood then passes through capillaries into bowman capsules.
3. Then filtering begins.
4. The waste products are then sent through the nephron.
5. The liquid then drains into the center of the kidney and down the ureter.
6. Processed blood is then sent out through the renal vein.
Why do our kidneys filter blood?
• Remove excess water
• Remove urea
Why is it best to receive organs off an identical
• You will know their lifestyle choices better.
• Avoid waiting lists.
• Similar age and height.
• Same blood group
Why can kidneys not be mechanically replaced?
• Kidney machines are too big.
What process creates genetically identical cells?
• The process is called mitosis.
What is an amniocentesis test?
• It is a test for abnormalities within the fetus.
• The test takes cells from the amniotic fluid.
• The fluid is taken from the uterus by the use of a syringe.
• The tests findings may lead to the termination of the fetus.
• It can cause damage to the fetus.
What circulatory system does a fetus have?
• Double and Single
• Double because it has 4 chambers and because some blood travels through the heart twice during each circulation.
• Single because some blood passes through the heart only once during a each circulation.
What is agglutination?
1. When an antibody and antigen of the same type are mixed, agglutination occurs.
2. The antibodies stick to the antigen. The blood then clots.
What are the blood types? What antigens and antibo
• Antibodies stick to antigens of the same type and cause agglutination (clotting).
• Remember - When blood is given, the antibodies are removed.