Lock and key theory
Active site is specific, substrate complementary to active site.
What is starch made of?
Coiled amylose and branched amylopectin.
Name the 3 parts of a phospholipid.
Two fatty acids, glycerol and a phosphate.
Which elements are found in lipids and carbohydrates?
Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
Difference between primary and secondary response?
Primary: Slow immune response waiting for antigen recognition.
Secondary: Rapid response due to memory cells.
Example of a fibrous protein.
Name the 2 types of nucleic acids.
DNA and RNA
The polysaccharide that gives a positive result for iodine test.
Substrate causes active site to change, produces better fit.
What bond is formed when a disaccharide is formed?
Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species
Energy need for a reaction to occur (breaking bonds)
What is the function of DNA Helicase?
To unzip the double helix (break Hydrogen bonds)
Name the monomer of nucleic acids.
Example of a globular protein
What is a balanced diet?
A diet containing all the essential nutrients in the correct proportions. (Containing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water and fibre).
How does temperature decrease enzyme activity?
Too much kinetic energy, bonds inside molecules vibrate, bonds are broken, 3D specific shape is lost.
List 2 functions of lipids
Insulation, energy store, hormones, organ protection, plasma membrane.
What is the function of DNA polymerase?
Seals the sugar phosphate backbone.
Prokarote, Protoctist, Fungi, Animal, Plant.
4 characteristics of enzymes
Proteins, Lower activation energy, Catalyst, Specific
Two examples of the support function of water
Amniotic fluid, hydrostatic skeleton, buoyancy of blubber and turgor pressure in plants.
What is the Earth Summit?
Meeting of world leaders that took place in 1992 to discuss sustainable use of world resources.
What are co-enzymes?
Organic molecules associated with an enzyme.
B cells are responsible for what type of response?
Evidence for evolution
Fossils, DNA profiling, Molecular evidence.
How do DNA bases pair?
Adenine - Thymine, Cytosine - Guanine. (Complementary base pairing).
Features of the Kingdom Plantae
Photosynthetic, cellulose cell wall, photoautotrophic.
What is the theory of DNA replication?
What are plasma cells and memory cells?
Plasma cells: produce antibodies.
Memory cells: immunological memory.
List 5 properties of water important for living organisms.
Surface tension, polar, high specific heat capacity, cohesion, latent heat of evaporation.
List other factors that affect enzyme controlled reactions.
Enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, pH and inhibitors.
List 3 marks for semi-conservative replication.
1. 1 DNA molecule replicates. 2. Into 2 that are identical. 3. Containing 1 old and 1 new strand of each DNA.
Function of T-cells.
Killer: detect pathogen inside body cells, digest whole cell,
Helper: release cytokines to co-ordinate responses.
When does DNA replication occur?
Female Anopheles Mosquito
Trend for glucose concentration and colorimetery
As the concentration of glucose increases the % transmission of light increases.
When two molecules are formed from a larger one and water is used.
Function of a colorimeter
Transmission or absorption of light.
What is Vmax?
Enzyme functioning as fast as possible, substrate becomes the limiting factor.
How does temperature increase enzyme activity?
More kinetic energy, molecules move faster, more successful collisions, achieve activation energy quicker.
Define condensation reaction.
When two molecules are bonded together and water is released.
Protein, complimentary to an antigen.
What is a purine base?
A and G, double ringed, always pair with a pyrimidine.
Carrier of a disease.
What vitamin is deficient if you have night blindness?
Complete mental, physical and social well being.
Where members of one species live.
Give differences between the structure of DNA and RNA.
RNA: single stranded, uracil base, ribose sugar.
DNA: double stranded, thymine base, deoxyribose sugar.
If a nucleus contains 30% guanine, what are the % of the other bases?
30% Cytosine, 20% Adenine, 20% Thymine
4 points of Darwin's Theory
1. Variation within species. 2. Variation is inherited. 3. Organisms overproduce. 4. Population remains stable.