Occupation English

Howard Giles

Divergence- use language to distance ourselves from others.

Convergence- use language to resemble that used by people around us.

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Drew and Heritage

Members of a discourse community share inferential frameworks which is implicit ways of communicating.

Strong hierarchies of power within organisations.

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Koester

Phatic talk important in getting jobs done.

Workers need impersonal relationships and non-work related interactions.

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Labov

Department stores Saks-top Macy's-middle Kleins-bottom

Sales assistants from Saks used correct pronuniciation most, Macy's showed greatest upward shift.

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John Swales

Discourse community- members share a common set of goals.

Specialist lexis and knowledgable skills required.

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Grice's Maxims

Relevance- contributions relate to purpose of situation

Quality- speakers tell the truth to correct amount necessary

Quantity- should be informative as required

Manner- should be clear, orderly, brief and unambigious

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