Overt= researcher is open about his presence in the research.
Covert= researcher is kept hidden in the research.
Participant: sociologists join a group of people and study their behaviour.
ü Allow researcher to join the group and see things through the eyes of people.
ü Get the truth as researcher can see participants in action.
ü Can create a lose bond between researcher and group/individuals- they may be prepared to confide in researcher.
v Bias- researcher can easily to drawn into group and see things through their eyes
v Ethical issues- participants may not like the idea of being watched.
v Unable to repeat study as participants’’ view may change.
Non-participant: sociologists draw back from the group and observe them from a distance.
ü Bias- researcher less likely to be drawn into groups therefore the researchers’ view is less likely to be biased.
ü Influence- as researcher is not making any decisions or joining in activities the group would be less influenced
v May leave researcher on the outside and limit their understanding- unreliable.
v People act differently is they know they are being watched.