- Morality is objective, and therefore cognitive
- Involves statements that can be true or false
- There are objective moral values and that evaluative statements are factual claims, the truth of falsity of which does not depend on our beliefs or feelings.
Ethical Descriptivism / Naturalism
- Related to moral realism.
- Moral value is a real, objective property.of the natural (physical) world.
- A moral judgement is either true or false based on the facts of the world as it exists.
Two forms of Moral Realism
1. Ethical intuitionism / non-naturalism - There are objective moral properties (e.g. 'goodness') and we sometimes have intuitions of these moral properties or truths
2. Ethical naturalism - There are objective moral properties but they are reducible to entirely non-ethical properties (e.g. happiness, desirability). We have empirical knowledge (based on experience/observation) of moral truths.
- Morality is subjective, and therefore non-cognitive
- It deals with matters that are not simply resolved by establishing if they are true or false.