Obedience and Prejudice

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  • Created by: Lollipop
  • Created on: 10-01-13 09:11

Milgram Study

Aim - to see if people would obey an authority figure if the order involved harming other people

Procedure -

  •  40 male, American participants, aged 20-50
  • Yale University, Volunteer Sampling
  • The experimenter and Mr Wallace - learner were stooges
  • Learner learnt word pairs and recalled them incorrectly when asked by the participant - scripted
  • Participants gave incresing shocks for wrong answers - up to 450v
  • 4 prods if participnats refused to continue

Results - 65% to 450v, 100% to 300v

Conclusion - obey authority figures as brought up to - obey parents and teachers

  • G - lacks generalisability - American, male
  • R - standardised procedure and scripted - easily replicated and tested for reliability
  • A - good application to real life - people obey authoirty
  • V - lacks ecological - artifical setting
  • E - Unethical - no right to withdraw, distress, deception, no informed consent
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Milgram Variation Study

Aim - to test if obedience rate is affected by witnessing others behaviour

Proceducre

  • 80 male, American participants aged 20-50
  • 1st condition - 2 rebellious stooges - one refused to continue at 150v and other at 210v
  • 2nd condition - 2 obedient stooges - obeyed willingly

Results - Rebellious - 15% to 450v, Obedient - 72.5% to 450v

Conclusion - participants and obedience rate affected by others - rebellious stooges had most affect on participants

  • G - lacks generalisability - American, male
  • R - standardised procedure and scripted - easily replicated and tested for reliability
  • A - good application to real life - people obey authoirty
  • V - lacks ecological - artifical setting
  • E - Unethical - no right to withdraw, distress, deception, no informed consent
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Meeus and Raaijmakes Study

Aim - obey orders in everyday situations and to physchologically harm others

Procedure

  • 39 Dutch, male and female participants
  • Volunteer sampling
  • Interviewee - stooge
  • 15 increasingly stressful comments
  • Prods to continue
  • Experimental condition - experimenter present
  • Control condition - no experimenter present

Results - 92% made all comments in experimental condition, 0% made all comments in control condition

Conclusion - people will obey orders to psychologically harm others in everyday situations - job interview

  • G - good generalisability - female and male
  • R - standardised procedure and scripted - easily replicated and tested for reliability
  • A - good application to real life - shows obey authoirty in real situations - job interview
  • V - good ecological - real life situation
  • E - Unethical - no right to withdraw, distress, deception, no informed consent
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Agency Theory

In an agentic state people don't feel responsible for actions so may as well go against moral code - moral strain

This explains obedience of authority figure.

When not obeying in an autonomous state - independent

Agentic state is learnt from parents, school and society

  • S - Milgrams studies and Hofling et al
  • O - Description of how soceity works not an explanation
  • D - Social power - people obey someone with power
  • A - Explains diffenent levels of obedience and explains Abu Grahib and Holocaust
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Social Identity Theory

Prejudice occurs when 2 groups are formed and conflict occures between them

Social Categorisation leads to social identification and then social comparison

  • S - Lalonde and Sherif et al
  • O - focuses on group prejudice - individual prejudice occurs too
  • D - Realistic Conflict - not just the formation of two groups but competition that creates prejudice
  • A - explains real life events - Holocaust, suggests ways to solve social problems
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Compare Milgram and Meeus and Raaijmakers Study

Similarities:

  • Test obedience
  • Scripted and standardised procedure - easily replicate and reliable
  • Artifical setting
  • Prods
  • Volunteer Sampling
  • Supports Agency Theory
  • Stooges

Differences:

  • Different country
  • Milgram = physical harm, Meeus = psychological harm
  • Milgram = 65% completed all shock levels, Meeus = 92% all stressful comments
  • Milgram = experimenter always preseny, Meeus = experimenter not always present - 2 conditions
  • Milgram - participants can't see harm caused, Meeus = can see the harm - distress
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