Pre- pregnancy health
- Vitamin D deficiency in adolescence may have resulted in rickets with pelvic malformations, making a normal delivery impossible.
- A dietary defieciency of Vitamin B12 may cause infertility.
- A history of dieting can result in poor nutritional status.
- Women who have a history of eating disorders often experience irregularities in menstrual cycles and take longer to concieve.
Body weight and weight gain
- Gestational weight is very important as it is a determinant of birth weight and extremes of weight gain can pose risks during and after pregnancy.
- One woman's weight gain may be all baby whereas another will put on weight rapidly throughout gestation.
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Consequences of being underweight
- Increased risk of low birth weight due to intrauterine growth retardation.
- Low maternal blood glucose will restrict glucose supply to foetus and restrict growth.
- Increases incidence of mortality in childhood.
- A low birth weight baby.
- Reduces chance of conceiving.
- High blood pressure.
- Insulin resistance and diabetes.
Consequences of being overweight
- Leg pain
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Consequences of being overweight continued
- Varicose veins
- Extreme tiredness
- Prolonged labour, birth injury and mortality for the baby.
- Increased risk of an emergency caesarean section
- Increased risk of post partum diseases for mother
- Renal disorders for mother and baby
- Fertility probelms
- Attendance at antenatal clinics may be erratic or non- existent which means dietary deficiences are not detected.
- High rates of smoking and alcohol consumption.
- Low birth weight
- Competition for nutrients
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Use of supplements during pregnancy
- During lactation mothers should take vit D as human milk is low in it.
- Women planning a pregnancy should take folic acid to prevent NTDs
- If the mother is a teenager a multivitamin supplement is advised
- Supplements are useful for those who have poor appetities
- Supplements are not as useful for the body than nutrients that are taken from food.
- Foods contain natural beneficial components
- Possibility of overdosing
- High levels of vit A are teratogenic.
- Concentrated protein supplements can reduce birth weight
- Iron supplements can increase the chance of a premature birth.
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- Infants have a high BMR
- The energy requirements for infants are 4 times greater than an adult
- Protein is needed for growth and repair
- It is a secondary source of energy
- Infants need particular amino acids which are provided in protein
- Carbohydrates supply 40% of their energy
- It is essential in brain and nervous system
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