Nutrition

  • Created by: erp2002
  • Created on: 14-12-16 15:54

Food Guidelines For Different Ages Continued

Adults - Adults should try to maintain their weight. Some may be apparent now such as coronary heart disease (CHD) or type 2 diabetes or obesity. Adult women should have plenty of iron to cope with menstruation. In adulthood the metabolic rate can slow down.

Elderly - As the body ages some of the systems start to slow down e.g. digestion and blood circulation. Joints and bones can become weak. Calcium is important because it maintains bone strength. Dietary fibre is important. Under nutrition can be prevalent with the elderly because of oral (mouth problems), arthritis and poor absorption of nutrients. Osteoporosis is very common in the elderly because the skeleton naturally starts to lose minerals and bones can become fragile.

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Fats

Fat is a macronutrient that is needed by all animals. Fats are solid at room temperature and are called oils when they are liquid at room temperature. 

Fat has four main functions in the body:

  • To provide a store of energy in the adipose tissue under the skin
  • To insulate the body from the cold and help it stay warm
  • To protect bones and the kidneys from damage by providing them with a protective cushion of fat
  • To give the body fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

Fatty acids are either saturated or unsaturated (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated).

Foods with a lot of saturated fatty acids in them are often called 'saturated fats'. They include butter, lard, suet, block vegetable fat, ghee, the fat in meat, palm oil, coconut and chocolate.

Foods with a lot of unsaturated fatty acids in them are called 'unsaturated fats' or 'polysaturates'. They include plant oils such as olive, rapeseed, sunflower and corn; oily fish, avocado pears, nuts, seeds and some vegetable spreads. 

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Protein

Functions of protein:

  • To make the body grow e.g. bones, muscles, tissue
  • To repair the body e.g. bones, muscles, body cells and tissues
  • To give the body energy (protein sparer)

Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are 20 amino acids. Some amino acids can only be obtained from food, these are called essential amino acids. There are 8 essential amino acids.

  • HBV (High Biological Value) Proteins have all 8 essential amino acids (meat, eggs, soya beans, quinoa, fish, dairy foods)
  • LBV (Low Biological Value) Proteins are missing at least 1 essential amino acid (seeds, sorghum, gelatine sheets and powder, beans and lentils, cereals, nuts)

Protein contains nitrogen and too much of this in the body is dangerous. If the duet contains too much protein, the liver and kidneys have to work harder to get rid to the nitrogen. This puts them under stress and could cause them to be harmed.

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Food Guidelines For Different Ages

Babies - Babies should have milk for 4-6 months. Babies are born with a supply of iron. Breast milk enables babies to build up their immunity to disease and infection. Weaning is a gradual introduction to solid food. Babies should not have any salt or sugar added to food or drink.

Pre-School Children - Pre-school children are growing rapidly. Regular small meals are encouraged. Calcium is important for bone and teeth development. B group vitamins are important because they release carbohydrates. Parents should encourage good eating habits by; teaching kids about food, reward charts, eating at the table and giving them a balanced diet.

School-Aged Children - School-aged children are physically active. An increasing number of school children are overweight which could lead to obesity. It is important they have a balanced diet and are discouraged from grazing. School children have growth spurts and are usually hungrier when this happens. Physical activity is important because it strengthens muscles and bones. Sugar intake should be low because sugar causes tooth decay.

Adolescents / Teenagers - The body is changing rapidly. It is important that The Eatwell Guide is used as a guide. Boys need more kilocalories than girls because they are typically larger bodied and have more muscle mass. Teenage girls can suffer from anaemia due to a lack of iron. Vitamins and minerals are important with this age group because bones, teeth and the skeleton reach peak bone mass when adult.

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Carbohydrates

A third of your diet should come from a carbohydrate source.

Carbohydrates are macronutrients which are made by green plants during photosynthesis. 

The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body which is needed for physical activity, brain function and operation of organs. It is used to help the body get rid of waste products.

People on a dietary fibre diet eat lots of foods with carbohydrates in to help with problems like constipation. 

There are two types of carbohydrates:

  • Starch - These slowly release energy and are complex carbohydrates, they are polysaccharide.
  • Sugar - These give quick bursts of energy and are simple carbohydrates, they are either monosaccharide (natural) or disaccharides (more than one and are added to food).
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The Eat Well Guide

Fruits and Vegetables - Eat at least five portions of a variety of fruits and vegetables each day

Potatoes, Bread, Rice, Pasta and other Starchy Carbohydrates - Choose wholegrain or higher fibre versions with less added fat, salt and sugar

Oil and Spread - Choose unsaturated oils and use in small amounts

Dairy and Alternatives - Choose lower fat and lower sugar options

Beans, Pulses, Fish, Eggs, Meat and other Proteins - Eat more beans and pulses, two portions of sustainably sourced fish per week, one of which is oily. Eat less red and processed meat

You should have 6-8 glasses a day. Water, lower fat milk, sugar-free drinks including tea and coffee all count. Limit fruit juice and/or smoothies to a total of 150ml a day.

Per day women should have 2000kcal and men should have 2500kcal and this is for all foods and drinks. 

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Special Diets

Low-sugar: They should avoid foods that have been sweetened with free sugars (cereals, soft drinks, desserts etc), because they could have type two diabetes, trying to reduce energy intake or prevent tooth decay. If someone was to eat too much sugar they may find that they have tooth decay or type two diabetes. They can eat sweet foods that contain mainly natural intrinsic sugars (fresh fruits and vegetables); extrinsic milk sugars in milk and milk products.

High-fibre: Food that should be avoided is refined and processed foods that have had most of their fibre removed, white rice and smooth fruit juices. People may need to increase their dietary fibre (NSP) intake so they don't develop problems in their digestive system like, constipation, diverticula disease or cancer in the colon or rectum. They can eat fresh, whole foods that have had little processing (fresh fruits and vegetables, wholemeal cereals, pasta etc).

Low-sodium/salt diet: Foods to be avoided are foods that have been preserved or flavoured with salt, some types of bread, sauces, pickles and chutneys, ready meals, fast foods etc. Some bottled water. People who have high blood pressure or have a chance of developing it need a low-sodium/salt diet. Foods that are naturally low in sodium/salt, such as fruits, vegetables, milk and eggs can be eaten.

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Carbohydrates Continued

The main sources of polysaccharide are: Starch (cereals, starchy vegetables, seeds and quinoa), Dietary fibre/non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) (wholegrain cereals, fruits and vegetables with skins left on, seeds and nuts), Pectin (some fruits (apples and oranges) and some root vegetables (carrots), and Dextrin (formed when starchy foods (bread) are baked or toasted).

The main sources of monosaccharides are: Glucose (ripe fruits and vegetables), Fructose (fruits, vegetables and honey), and Galactose (milk from mammals).

The main sources of disaccharides are: Maltose (some cereals, hot drink powders), Sucrose (extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet, found in many processed foods, drinks and confectionary), and Lactose (milk from mammals and products made from it).

A deficiency of carbohydrates can lead to a lack of energy/fatigue, weight loss and severe weakness. An excess of carbohydrates can lead to it becoming converted into fat and stored in the body which eventually could lead to obesity, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, strokes and hyperactivity in children, if it is not used up in physical activity.

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Eight Tips For Healthy Eating

1. Base your meals on starchy foods.

2. Eat lots of fruit and vegetables.

3. Eat more fish - including a portion of oily fish each week.

4. Cut down on saturated fats and sugars.

5. Try to eat less salt - no more than 6g a day for adults.

6. Get active and try to be a healthy weight.

7. Drink plenty of water.

8. Don't skip breakfast.

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Fats Continued

Fat found in foods is either present as solid fat or liquid oil. Some of these are easy to see (e.g. the fat on a piece of meat or the oil in a tin of tuna). These are called visible fats and oils.

In many foods, however, it is difficult to see the fats and oils they contain because they are combined with other ingredients in the food, and therefore it is not easy to see how much fat and oil you are eating. These are called invisible fats and oils and are found in foods such as cakes, pastries, potato crisps, biscuits, chocolate, nuts, etc.

A deficiency of fat is rare in the UK but the effects of a deficiency are:

  • If carbohydrate intake is also reduced, body weight will be lost
  • The body will chill quickly
  • The body will bruise easily and bones will hurt if they are knocked
  • The body will not receive enough vitamins A, D, E and K

If there is an excess of fat in the diet and it is not all used up in physical activity, it will be stored by the body under the skin in adipose tissue and elsewhere in the body (e.g. around the intestines (visceral fat)). Consequently, the body will gain weight and could become obese. Eating a lot of foods that contain high levels of saturated fatty acids has been linked to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in some people.

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Protein Continued

If there is a lack of protein in the diet, children won't grow properly and may not reach their full height, you can suffer from hair loss, skins and nails will be in a poor condition, you can easily develop infections and won't be able to digest food properly.

Protein complementation - When LBV proteins are eaten together they can become HBV.

This is because the essential amino acids missing in one LBV food are supplied by another.

Examples - Nut butter on bread, lentil soup, beans on toast

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Special Diets Continued

Vegetarian: There are different types of vegetarianism and people become vegetarian through choice, so will not become ill if they eat something that they were not meant to.

  • Lacto-ovo vegetarians - People who follow this diet avoid any animal where the animal is killed to produce it - this includes fish and shellfish. They can eat dairy products, eggs, all plant foods.
  • Lacto vegetarians - They will avoid eggs, animal food where the animal is killed to produce it - this includes fish and shellfish. They can eat dairy products and all plant foods.
  • Vegan - They will avoid all animal products, even if the animal was not killed to produce it - this includes fish and shellfish. They can eat plant foods only, and some products made from plants. 

 

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Special Diets Continued

Coeliac: They should avoid wheat, barley, oats and rye, because the gluten in these foods causes the lining of their small intestine to become damaged. Eating these foods coeliacs will suffer from weight loss and nutrient deficiencies. They can eat rice, soya flour, maize, millet, cassava, linseeds, polenta, peas, beans, lentils, quinoa, sorghum, agar and nuts.

Lactose Free: They should avoid milk, milk products and any food containing lactose, because they cannot digest the disaccharide sugar lactose. If they have lactose it can cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, flatulence and nausea. They can eat any food that doesn't contain lactose.

Reduced-fat: Foods that should be avoided are full-fat versions of dairy foods, foods containing 'invisible' fats and oils such as pastries, meat products, fried snack foods, cakes, biscuits, desserts or fatty meats. People may need a fat-reduced diet if they are trying to reduce the energy density of their diet or have CHD. They can eat naturally low-fat foods like fruits and vegetables, cereals, white fish, fat-reduced versions of foods such as milk and cheeses.

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