vitamins and minarals list

vitamins and minarals


Growth, healing, energy

Meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, cereals, pulses

Poor growth, slow healing


Provides and stores energy, insulates body, provides vitamins A, D, E and K

Meat, oily fish, dairy foods, margarine, nuts, seeds, egg yolk

Deficiency of vitamins A, D, E, K, lack of essential fatty acids needed for growth

 Dietary Fibre

Provides energy

 Healthy digestive system, helps fight heart disease and cancers

Bread, cereals, vegetables, fruit, sugars

Wholemeal cereals, fruits and vegetables (especially skin), pulses, nuts, seeds

Lack of energy



Poorly functioning digestive system, constipation, bowel disorders, bowel cancer

Fat-soluble vitamins

 Vitamin A

Helps night vision, keeps mucous membranes moist, healthy skin, growth

Dairy, egg yolk, oily fish, carrots, spinach, apricots, watercress

Night blindness, leading to total blindness, dry skin, poor growth

Vitamin D

Helps absorption of calcium, helps form strong bones and teeth

Fish liver oils, liver, oily fish, milk, margarine

Weak bones leading to rickets, poor growth

Vitamin E

Keeps cells healthy and helps protect against heart disease

Lettuce, peanuts, seeds, wheatgerm, vegetable oil

Muscle tissue damage, breakdown of red blood cells

Vitamin K

Helps blood to clot after injury

Many foods, especially green leafy vegetables

Blood fails to clot properly – this is rare

Water-soluble vitamins




Vitamin B group

Helps to release energy from carbohydrates, helps nervous system

Yeast, yeast extract, cereals, meat, eggs, milk

Poor concentration, anaemia, poor growth, weak muscles

Vitamin C

Helps body to absorb iron, helps make strong bones and teeth, keeps skin and digestive system healthy

Blackcurrants, oranges, lemons, kiwi fruit, peppers, potatoes, cabbage, peas

Loose teeth, bleeding gums, loss of weight, slow healing, scurvy






Makes strong bones and teeth (with vitamin D), helps blood to clot

Dairy, bread, cereals, leafy vegetables

Bones and teeth become weak, muscles and nerves don’t work properly, osteoporosis


Helps produce haemoglobin which takes oxygen around the body

Liver, kidney, cocoa, curry powder, white bread, dried fruit, lentils, green leafy vegetables

Tiredness, weakness, pale skin, anaemia


Same as calcium, also releases energy from food

All plant and animal cells

Not known

Chloride, Potassium, Sodium

Keep body fluids at the right concentration

Salt, salty foods, a wide variety of foods

Muscle cramps in a hot climate


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