Nuclear Fission and Fusion - P2.5

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Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number, but with different mass numbers.

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Ionic Bonding

Atoms transfer electrons to form positivley or negatively charged atoms called ions. Atoms that only have one or two electrons in their outer shell are keen to get rid of them, because they'll then have a full outer shell. Atoms with nearly a full shell are keen to gain that one or two extra electrons to complete their shell.

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Alpha, Beta & Gamma Rays (Beta)

Beta Particles

  • Beta particle is an electron emitted from the unstable nucleus.
  • Beta particles have a negative charge of -1.
  • They are moderatley ionising. 
  • They have a medium penetration distance.
  • Stopped by 3mm of aluminium.
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Alpha, Beta & Gamma Rays (Gamma)

Gamma Rays

  • Gamma rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Gamma rays have no charge (0).
  • They are weakly ionising.
  • They have a long penetration distance
  • Stopped by thick lead or very thick concrete.
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