The nature of  WMDs. Developement of Nuclear weapons, chemical weapons etc.

Nuclear Proliferation- vert and Horiz.


India and Pakistan


'Star wars'

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Definition of Deterrance?

War is prevented because  both sides fear each other equally and the consequences of war would be devastating for both.

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What are two principles needed for nuclear deterra

1. Both sides have to believe the other side would use nuclear weapons.

2. Both sides must have enough nuclear weapons to destroy the other at the same time i.e. it is not possible to win a nuclear war.

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What was the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT

An attempt by the UN to persuade all countries apart from the permanent 5 to promise to never develop  a nuclear bomb and submit to regular inspections from the IAEA. (International Atomic Energy Agency)

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3 Reasons why states signed the NPT

1. NPT states can share nuclear technology legitimately.

2. Saves a vast amount of money to not develop nukes.

3. Most states were either in NATO or Warsaw pact, US+USSR could use their nukes to protect them.

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Excluding the permanent 5, which countries have Nu

India                   Refusal: India

Pakistan                              Pakistan

Isreal                                    Isreal

North Korea                       North Korea


Note: Libya was forced to give up its WMDs

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Define Horizontal and Vertical Proliferation

Horizontal:                                 Vertical:

More and more states                   One nuclear state

becoming nuclear (sharing      stockpiling nukes (imagine

nuclear technology)                     a vertical pile!!!)

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