Norman opposition

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 26-12-19 09:59

After Hastings

  • London blocked William's advance, and he was nowhere near the North.
  • His army was tired and there were Saxons in the North preapred to fight.
  • Edwin, Morcar, Stigand, and Edgar met in London.
  • Using terror, William took control of the South east, with Romney, Dover and Canterbury surrendering. He attacked shires around London, such as Winchester.
  • In London, he built a castle so Stigand surrendered. Later so did the other nobles.
  • Christmas day, crowned in Westminster by Ealdred, archibishop of York.
  • Mistaking cheers for a revolt, the soldiers attacked locals- William was insecure. 
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Rebellion- South

  • 1067, William felt secure enough to return to Normandy.
  • He toured Normandy, showing off his 4 noble captives and treasure.
  • Fitz Osbern and Odo stayed in England. A small rebellion happened in Kent, and Eustace of Boulogne offered to come and lead it since his reward from 1066 was too small.
  • The English lacked leaders and were shocked by 1066's defeat so they failed.
  • Exeter, a rebellion against Norman taxation led by Harold's mother Gytha.
  • William returned and marched into Dover in 1068 using Norman and English men. 
  • Exeter was seiged for 18 days and submitted, Gytha escaping to Flanders.
  • William built a castle, and marched through Devon and Cornwall.
  • Harold's sons from Ireland returned to Bristol but they were defeated by the English.
  • Devon lay seige to the Castle of Montacre, and Harold's sons invaded again- defeated.
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Rebellion- North

  • Firstly, Edgar, Edwin and Morcar defected to Scotland.
  • William had promised to sell back some land, but they had little power or influence.
  • Edwin was also mad that William broke his promise to marry a daughter to him.
  • Resistance built near York so in 1068 William invaded Warickshire, Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire, so Edwin and Morcar surrendered and William built a castle at York.
  • 1069, the rebels attacked Durham killing a Norman earl. 
  • In York, the rebels seiged the castle and Edgar returned to lead the rebellion.
  • William relieved the castle but Edgar escaped. William built another castle.
  • 240 Danish ships arrived by the river Humber. Danes, York and Edgar rebelled.
  • They resented rule from the South and Edgar had a claim and Scottish links to Malcom III.
  • William seiged York then paid off the Vikingr, celebrating Christmas there with his crown.  
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Harrying of the North

  • William was brutal towards Yorkshire, ravaging and laying waste to the local area.
  • The area did not recover for generations, shown by Orderic Vitalis (50 years later) and the Doomsday book in 1068, which called 1/3 of Yorkshire 'waste'. 
  • William crossed the Pennines, forcing some of his troops to mutiny due to harsh weather.
  • The rebels were unprepared for a winter assult, and William attacked Chester and Staffod. 
  • The Danes left the River Humber and William felt secure enough to return South. 
  • The English resented William's regents and the mudrum tax for murdering Normans.
  • The Bishop of Durham thought the church was too Norman and land was lost. 
  • Earl Cumin in the North used mercenaries to attack the Tyre, Durhman and York.
  • William did not feel safe from rebels copying York so he sent Mathilda back. 
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East Anglian rebellion

  • Revolts were localised, had no co-ordination, only dealt with local grievances, lacked leaders and manpower, soldiers wanted plunder and lacked training and weapons. 
  • 1070, William deprived bishops and abbots of thier positions as well as nobles.
  • Some Danes and rebels went to Ely and attacked Peterborough, including Edwin and Morcar.
  • Ely was a defensible island, it had an abbey and rivers for reinforcements and Danish ships.
  • Edwin was killed by his men or William on the way to Scotland.
  • After threatening to ***** Ely's abbot of wealth, land and titles, he betrayed the rebels.
  • Hereward escaped and Morcar was captured and blinded. 
  • 1073-5, the Atheling submitted. 
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Revolt of the Earls

  • 1075, William was in Normandy, Maine and Brittany rebellions.
  • Led by Roger de Bretuil (Hereford), Ralph de Gael (Norfolk) and Waltheof (Northumbria).
  • First two Normans, Waltheof last remaining English earl. They had lost land from thier fathers.
  • Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, found out about it from Waltheof.
  • The other two earls continued without a Danish army or Waltheof, lacking English support.
  • Lanfranc and Odo crushed the rebellion, with de Gael escaping a seige to Brittany.
  • de Bretail was imprisoned, but Waltheof was executed the following year.
  • When the Danes arrived, they sacked York Minster then left. 
  • William's brute force meant this was the last rebellion. 
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