- Created by: mrevv
- Created on: 18-02-20 10:22
Power of the King
- Normandy was William's priority and he relied on sub-regulus Odo and Lanfranc.
- He was crowned in the same public coronation and anointment as the English.
- He wanted continiuty to strengthen his claim by taking solemn promices to be just and pious.
- Only one able to pass laws, raise an army, mint coins, make decisions head of the Church and head of Justice. He managed to keep this power.
- Only 3 baronial revolts in 1075, 1088 and 1095. Strong leader, respected.
- Patronage used as a lever, helpful advisors.
- He heard royal pleas, for land and inheritance.
- William II wrote a coronation charter and physical symbols of kingdom.
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- Crowning and crown wearing ceremonies showed authority.
- Always crowned at Wincester in Easter, at Christmas in Gloucester and at Whitsun in Westminster. He listened to pleas and gave minting licenses on his trips.
- Edgar, king of Scotland, carried a sword to William for homage.
- The royal seal was used on charters showing the king as a knight.
- Priests (for religion and scribing), family members and earls in itinerant households.
- Lords provided for households to hold the Curia Regis.
- Titles did not changed but the personnel did.
- There were chancellors and more people in the household.
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- Hides, hundreds then shires.
- One hide would support one family, 30 acres.
- Hundreds were divisions of shires with 100ish hides.
- Sheriffs enforced writs, but in AS England they just collected tax and fines.
- Sheriffs showed continuity- they had no Norman equivalent.
- Existing English sheriffs were replaced with Normans.
- Earldoms became smaller and less powerful than sherriffs.
- 1070, all sheriffs were Norman- Tofi of Somerset and Edmund of Hertfordshire were replaced.
- Roger of Hertford rebelled since the sheriffs were too powerful in his earldom.
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- Danegeld most common tax, 2 shillings to a shire reeve.
- Shire reeves became sherriffs for a Wincester treasury. Roads and rivers had tolls.
- Special taxes could be introduced- 1084, war in France, tax increased to 6 shillings.
- Exempted his inner circle and the church from taxes. William also had royal land revenue.
- Sophisticated coinage, 60 mints for the silver penny.
- No foreign coins were allowed and the crown controlled the mint.
- Every 3 years coins were re-minted to keep the silver pure.
- 1125, minters took some silver for themselves- William took thier hands and castrated them.
- Same amount of money in 1086 as pre-conquest, 9 million pennies.
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- Mostly continuity- William saw himself as Edward's heir
- More serious cases went to more important leaders.
- The king held ultimate authority- or his regent if he was absent.
- All shire courts had different customs and precedents (recent cases).
- William made them meet more than twice a year in different locations.
- Royal justices carried out random inspections.
- Who was present and the punishment vaired- bishops and sheriffs often came.
- There were around 730 hundred courts once a month.
- The Normans invented Lords courts and Forest law courts.
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- Mudrum fine for murdering a Normon to a village.
- Ordeals by fire and water the same, trial by combat added.
- Hanging, mutilation, limb loss, blinding and castration used more often.
- More poverty meant more thievery. More Normans, more violence
- No police force so the community had to catch criminals.
- Outlaws did not go to court and could be killed by anyone.
- A good reputation helped you get away with anything.
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