Non Fiction Text


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When you respond use FLAP

Form - What type of text is it?

Language - What style or tone is being used?

Audience - Who is the text aimed towards?

Purpose - What does the writer want you to think about at the end?

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Helps organise your responses

Point - What is the writer trying to say?

Evidence - What is the proof of the point?

Explaination - What does the evidence show?

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This refers to the way the text is presented.  For example: letter or leaflet. 

The writer will use a variety of presentational devices. For example the writer may use: pictures or colour.

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Depending on which style of writing the text is, the author will use the appropriate type of language.

Style is:

  • The way words are used
  • the impact of the words used
  • sentence structure

The style man be simple. This is done by using basic wors and short sentances. Or it can be desriptive if the writer uses a lot of adverbs and adjectives.

Tone depends on the mood and atmosphere created by the text. For example: a speech is very passionate while a professional article will have an academic tone.

Style and tone both depend on the purpose of the writer and the intended audience  

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Audience and Purpose

Who the text is for and what the writer is trying to achieve?

To help you figure it out does the writer use:

  • masculine or feminine words (male or female audience)
  • descriptions of people and emotions (emotional impact to get sympathy)
  • bias or opinion (persuade the reader to change their viewpoint)
  • narrative account (engage the reader)
  • full words or shortened words (shows its either formal or informal)
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Personal Pronouns - Adds personal touch making the reader feel involved

Narrative - When in the 1st person its gives the effect what the writer is sharing experiences

Tone and Mood - Dictates the way the reader should feel

Emotive Language - Makes the reader feel a certain emotion. 

Exaggeration - Adds greater emphasis. 

Repetition - Adds emphasis.

Rhetoric - Makes the reader consider and think about the question being asked

Alliteration - To make a phrase stand out or make it memeroble

Use of three - To add emphasis

Figure of speech - Something which should not be taken seriously

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Types of questions

If they ask you to:

  • Give reasons from the text (means find the evidence and explain. Give a couple of reasons)
  • According to (tells you what the text says and probably wants you to agree. Give reasons on why you agree and back up with evidence)
  • Choose examples of language in the text and explain why they are effective (Do PEE)
  • How do the pictures show how you are meant to feel (give the effect and your personal feeling)
  • How does the writer use language (use PEE)
  • Compare the way the text (look at the similarities and differences)
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Presentational Devices

  • Font size
  • Font colour
  • Graphs
  • Pictures
  • Photos
  • Use of colour
  • Layout of text and images
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Types of text which inform and instruct

Type of text to give you information:

  • Text books
  • Manuals
  • Game instructions
  • Wall charts at exhibitions
  • Descriptions
  • Articles
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Features of writing to inform and instruct

  • Simple grammar
  • Numbers or bullet points
  • Short paragraphs
  • Diagrams or illustrations

The audience you are writing for is a key point to remember. If you write for children or elderly it will have to be simple

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Types of texts which are persuasive

Type of text which aim to change your viewpoint:

  • Brochures
  • Charity work
  • Advertisements
  • Promotional items
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Key features of persuasive texts

  • Adverbs 
  • Adjectives
  • Emotional language - makes the reader feel a certain way (normally are adverbs or adjectives)
  • Negative or positive tone 
  • Bias 
  • Tone
  • Personal pronouns
  • Exaggeration
  • Exclamatory sentences - exclamation mark to show amazement, horror etc
  • Repetition
  • Juxtaposition - Placing the negative with the positive
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Presentational devices of persuasive text

Use need to show you understand why these are used:

  • images - analyse the positions. think what are they trying to achieve and what's the impact?
  • Illustrations - why have they been included? what is the purpose?
  • Image captions - emotive or factual or humorous
  • colour - what feeling does the colour create? is a particular colour being used due to a specific meaning?
  • Headline - alliteration, pun or humour
  • font size - what words do they emphasise
  • bold,italic, underlined words - highlight certain words
  • catchy phrases - what is the effect?
  • Layout - how is it presented? 
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How to respond to persuasive texts?

  • Read the text twice
  • When reading it for the second time highlight the presentational features and language features
  • for the features write down what the writer might want to achieve
  • what impact they create and how?
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Analysing facts and opinions

Facts - Proven statements

Opinions - Personal Views

Opinions can be persuasive. You can spot an opinion when adjectives are being used. They also contain a lot of hyperbole or exaggeration.

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