Non fatal offences - ABH
"Any assault or battery which causes ABH" S.47 OAPA
The assault or battery must cause the ABH injury - factual and legal causation
Miler - any hurt injury which is calculated to interefere with the victim
Chan Fook - inludes psychiatric harm.
DPP V Smith - also includes the cutting of hair.
MR - the same for assault and battery
intention or reckless to cause someone to fear immediatte unlawful force or application of immediatte unlawful force.