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  • Cessation of suffering- quenching, blowing out
  • Causes of suffering- 5 skandhas, tanha and ignorance
  • Arising of suffering is outlined in the Paticca Samupadda
  • Dukkha is the outcome of a process that starts with ignorance and ends with death and rebirth
  • When free from ignorance, we see into the causes of dukkha and the cycle of dependent origination goes into reverse with wisdom as an outcome
  • When we have attained nibbana, we are awakened to the truth and are free from dukkha
  • Nirodha is the stopping of tanha and the relinquishing of desires
  • It is like blowing out a candle
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  • Beyond ordinary human experience
  • It is ineffable- 'like describing colours to a blind person' (Cush)
  • They avoid saying anything positive about nibbana as this limits what cannot be limited
  • They often use negative descriptions for example tanhakhaya (extinction of tanha), deathless ( free from samsara) and unconditioned (free from the chain of conditions of Paticca Samupadda)
  • Described as an Island, a refuge/shelter and a medicine
  • It is the quenching of the fires of passion- an enlightened being no longer grasps at things and so craving has ended
  • Therevandin- arahant, Mahayana- bodhisattva
  • Buddha gained enlightenment and kept teaching for 45 years until his death
  • Having destroyed all causes of rebirth they cannot be born again
  • 'Beyond rather than after death' Harvey
  • Buddha- the mind of an arhant is as 'deep, immeasurable and hard to fathom as is the great ocean'
  • Unborn, unconditioned, blissful reality participated in during life and continued in after death
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