New movements in theology


Liberation theology

Gustavo Gutierrez created this and considers the perspective of the poor and the oppressed. It argues Jesus cared for the outcasts of society.

We should focus on praxis over doxa which is action over ideas.

Jesus was a reflector as a liberator of the oppressed. 

Jesus speaks of bringing out a sword than peace so we should fight for the oppressed.

Christians have an obligation to fight politically against any sinful structure.

Oscar romero was assassinated for preaching against government oppression. This helped to revive the commitment of many catholics to social change.

It is ambiguous as it used violent action to bring about change.

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Black theology

J.H.Cone is the person for black theology. He stressed that we should raise awareness of the oppression. Get rid of the white devil within us as Christianity is dominated by white people. 

It demonstrated how Christianity often denied a voice to black people.

He stressed the plight of the Jews in Egypt reflects the experience of many black people.

It has played an important role in the black civil rights movement.

It has been criticised for promoting conflict and racial tension as creates a division between white and black oppressors.

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Feminist theology

Sallie McFague was a feminist who said God should be presented as a mother with feminine qualitites.

Should use metaphors and images to express the nature of God.

It highlights the importance of Christianity as a Gospel of justice and equality. 

Women are oppressed and she argues that images and metaphors help express the nature of God. So this is why God is expressed as a Father because it helps them believe God is the creator. Such words like father and king makes God have male attributes and can influence christian attitudes and behaviour.

Criticisms of would be that distinictions of gender is present in the bible eg. only males were chosen and women were against having a voice in church.

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Evangelicalism and pentecostal and charismatic

This is a movement to renew the effect of the good news of Jesus Christ in the lives of the believer.

Their core idea is that salvation is reached by the grace of God and through an acceptance of faith and as jesus as a saviour.

They believe they are baptised by the holy spirit and that Jesus will return to welcome those who have been saved- second coming.

Pentecostal and charismatic places great emphasis on the joyful proclamation of the gospel in the hope of helping people accept jesus as their saviour.

The holy spirit is believed to be important in inspiring prayer and worship. Worship is less structured than others and is characterised by bible readings, singing, spontaneous prayer, which are all influenced by the holy spirit. 

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