Nepal Earthquake - LIC

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  • Created by: Morgan.K
  • Created on: 19-05-18 08:55

Nepal Earthquake (Info) - LIC

Date = 25th April 2015

Location = Kathmandu (Nepal)

Strength = 7.9 on the Richter Scale

Plate Margin = Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates (Collision plate margin)

 

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Nepal Earthquake (Effects) - LIC

Primary Effects -

  • 9000 deaths
  • 20,000 injured
  • No electricity or water
  • Expensive damage
  • Airports were congested

Secondary Effects -

  • 19 killed on Mount Everest
  • Missing people
  • Landslides blocked roads
  • Kali river became flooded.
  • People made homeless
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Nepal Earthquake (Responses) - LIC

Immediate Responses - 

  • Search and Rescue was deployed 
  • Helicopters saved those who were on Mount Everest
  • Field hospitals were set up
  • Helicopters delivered goods to cut off villages.

Long-term Responses - 

  • Landslides were cleared
  • Roads were repaired
  • Thousands were re-homed
  • 7,000 schools were repaired/rebuilt
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Sendai Earthquake (Info) - HIC

Date = 11th March 2011

Location = East of Sendai

Strength = 9.0 on Richter Scale

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Sendai Earthquake (Effects) - HIC

Primary Effects - 

  • 15,000 people killed
  • 5,000 people injured
  • Missing people
  • Roads damaged
  • Properties destroyed.

Secondary Effects - 

  • Tsunami
  • Coastal flooding
  • Transport links damaged
  • Seawater contaminated soil
  • Nuclear power plant damaged.
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Sendai Earthquake (Responses) - HIC

Immediate Responses - 

  • Goods were delivered twice a day
  • Shelters were given to the homeless
  • Cut off communities were located.
  • Aircraft were sent out to located in bad areas.

Long-term Responses - 

  • Sendai airports were cleared and repaired
  • Radioactive contamination was cleared
  • Water and electricity supplies were fixed.
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Hurricane Katrina (Info)

Date = 25th August 2005

Location = New Orleans, Mississippi, Louisiana and Florida.

Ocean = Caribbean

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Hurricane Katrina (Effects)

Primary Effects - 

  • 1800 people killed
  • 300,000 homes destroyed
  • 80% of New Orleans was flooded.
  • Coastal habitats were damaged.

Secondary Effects - 

  • Many jobs were lost
  • water supplies were contaminated with sewage
  • billions spent on repairing the damage.
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Hurricane Katrina (Responses)

Immediate Responses - 

  • 80% of New Orleans was evacuated
  • Shelters were set up and the food was supplied
  • Many people were rescued
  • Charities collected donations.

Long-term Responses - 

  • Rebuilding homes and infrastructure
  • Buildings were to be built on stilts
  • Repairing and improving flood defences.
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Deforestation in Malaysia

Location = In the south of Asia amongst the islands

  • Made up of Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia.
  • East Malaysia is part of the island of Borneo.

Malaysia - 

  • 70% of Malaysia is rainforest
  • 600 species
  • 25% of all plants in the rainforest
  • Some plants could cure diseases.
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Deforestation in Malaysia (Economy)

Economic Gains - 

  • Jobs made directly and indirectly
  • Companies pay taxes which go to public services
  • Hydro-electric energy produces cheap and plentiful power
  • Minerals can be found and sold

Economic Losses - 

  • Pollution of water supply may contribute to water shortage
  • fires can get out of control
  • some plants used for medical uses may become extinct
  • Tourists who visit the rainforest will decrease
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Deforestation in Malaysia (Impacts)

Climate Change - 

  • Fewer trees = More carbon dioxide

Loss of biodiversity - 

  • Destroying habitats of many animals and destroying their food source.

River Pollution - 

  • Mercury used to separate gold is polluting water supplies.

Native Tribal loss - 

  • Native people are losing their homes and their traditional way of life.

Soil Erosion -

  • Surface runoff is increased as the trees can no longer hold the water.
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Deforestation in Malaysia (Threats)

Oil - 

  • Very rich reserves of oil across Indonesia and Brazil.

Mineral extraction - 

  • A constant cycle of cutting more trees for a larger area of extraction.
  • Roads fr transport must also be constructed.
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The Cold Environment, Svabard (Info)

Location = Norwegian territory - Atlantic Ocean

  • The most northerly inhabited island in the world.
  • A polar climate with 60% of the land covered by glaciers.
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The Cold Environment, Svalbard (climate)

  • Below freezing for 8 months
  • Sun doesn't rise from October to mid-February
  • Used to be in the tropics
  • Can fall below -30 degrees
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The Cold Environment, Svalbard (Accessibility)

  • 50km of road
  • small streets between houses
  • snowmobiles
  • must carry a gun if leaving the town.
  • Avalanches affect accessibility
  • remote part of europe.
  • One airport
  • Plane or ship.
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The Cold Environment, Svabard (Opportunties)

Coal Mining - 

  • Vital to the economy of Svalbard
  • Provides many jobs for people
  • a rich supply of coal

Energy - 

  • Burning coal has provided jobs and electricity for Svalbard
  • Carbon Capturing is a new development

Fishing - 

  • Barents sea richest fishing ground in the world. 
  • many jobs provided in catching and selling.

Tourism - 

  • Many jobs created in tourism
  • Brings in a large amount of money.
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The Cold Environment, Svalbard (Threats)

Coal Mining - 

  • Environmental groups are against coal mining.
  • Lower world coal demand has made some people lose their jobs.

Energy - 

  • Environmentalists want to use renewable energy sources

Fishing - 

  • Pollution from boats and cruise ships can kill off fish.
  • Fishermen take large quantities of fish instead of leaving them.

Tourism - 

  • Noise pollution, Litter pollution and air pollution caused by more people coming to the island.
  • More roads will affect wildlife and scenery.
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The Cold Environment, Svalbard (Services)

  • A university which provides physics, biology and geology.
  • Water, electricity and sanitation.
  • Underground heated water and sewage pipes.
  • international seed vault.
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The Cold Environment, Svalbard (Challenges)

  • Hard to provide essentials like water and electricity.
  • Slow outdoor work as low temperatures can cause frostbite.
  • Houses are hard to build because of the permafrost.
  • Transport can be hard due to the snow and heavy snowfall. 
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Coastal Landforms at Swanage (Info)

Location = In Dorset (South coast of England)

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Coastal Landforms at Swanage (Landforms)

Poole Harbour - 

  • A large amount of deposition.
  • Two spits at the mouth of the harbour.

Durlston Head - 

  • Formed from hard Limestone.
  • Swanage bay formed from soft clay.

Old Harry - 

  • Famous stack.
  • Formed from chalk.

Old Harry's wife - 

  • Was another stack next to Old Harry.
  • Collapsed in 1896 - she is now a stump.
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Coastal Lanforms at Swanage (More Landforms)

Caves - 

  • Cracks were formed from cracks in the headlands expanding due to freeze-thaw weathering.

Arches - 

  • Two caves fell through and left a hole running through the headland.

Sand dunes - 

  • Beach is very large and flat and can be moved easily.
  • Tidal range was very big, so allowed the sand to dry out.
  • The onshore wind was strong, this allowed to dunes to move up the beach.
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Coastal Landforms at Swanage (Future)

  • Further erosion will take place.
  • Old Harry will erode until it collapses.
  • The arch in the large stump will be eroded and will form a stack. 
  • The current headland will erode more and become smaller.
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Coastal Management in Lyme Regis (Info)

Location = west Dorset coast

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Coastal Management in Lyme Regis (Phase 1)

  • New seawall and Promenade
  • An emergency project to stabilise cliffs.
  • Nails used to stabilise rocks
  • Improved drainage
  • Reprofiling of slope
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Coastal Management in Lyme Regis (Phase 2)

  • £22 million spent on improvements
  • new seawall and promenade
  • Large sand and shingle beach to absorb wave energy
  • Extension of rock armour to help retain new beach.
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Coastal Management in Lyme Regis (Phase 3)

  • Not undertaken
  • The plan was to reduce landslips and coastal erosion to West coast
  • But the cost was too high for the benefits.
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Coastal Management in Lyme Regis (Phase 4)

  • £20 million
  • New seawall
  • Nailing more cliffs
  • Improvements to drainage systems
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Coastal Management in Lyme Regis (positives)

  • New beaches will increase tourism.
  • New defences have stood up to winter weather
  • Harbour is protected, better for fishermen and boat owners.
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Coastal Management in Lyme Regis (Negatives)

  • More pollution from tourists
  • New defences have ruined the natural beauty
  • New seawall may affect other parts of the coastline
  • Stabilising the cliffs will help protect against landslips.
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Coastal Management in Lyme Regis (why?)

Why did Lyme Regis need a coastal management scheme?

  • Much of the town is built on unstable cliffs
  • Tourism is high
  • Many houses and buildings were previously damaged
  • Major breaches of seawalls.
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River Tees (info)

Location = northern England

Landforms = 

  • waterfalls
  • meanders
  • oxbow lakes
  • levees
  • estuary
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River Tees (Upper course)

Waterfall -

  • Close to the forest-in-tees-dale
  • 20m drop
  • gorge runs for 700m

Meanders - 

  • As it becomes less steep
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River Tees (Lower course)

Oxbow Lakes -

  • Sweeping meander at Stockburn - may develop into an oxbow lake.

Levees - 

  • Flooding has caused the formation of Levees near Neasham.

Mouth -

  • Flows east from source
  • Is around 128kn from source.
  • North sea in Middlesbrough

Estuary - 

  • wide with mudflats.
  • formed by rising in sea level from the last ice age.
  • the site of scientific interest.
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