Why did people join?
- uniforms smart and treasured, it was a time when children had few clothes.
- 19 35 - 42% youth in youth groups but then in 19 36 this became compulsory.
- experience of membership and belonging - those not in groups felt left out.
- appealing activities e.g. camping and sports.
- 19 36 over 5 million members and little opposition from other youth groups as clubs linked to other political parties or churches shut down.
- 19 36 membership compulsory.
- 19 39 7 million German Youths in Nazi youth organisations.
Leauge of German Maidens.
- opportunity to indocrinate young people.
- encouraged girls to keep physically fit in preparation for motherhood.
- important as children would be the future soldiers, child bearers and supporters for Hitler.
- they did things like household chores, cooking etcetera.
Women and the Family.
- women should be - childbearers, cookers and churchgoers.
- employment opportunities for women declined. there were fewer women teachers, civil servants and doctors. they were banned from being judges and removed from the jury service.
- birth rate fallen, Hitler set up Mother Cross. 8 or more gold. 6 or more silver. 4 or more bronze.
- ideal german women had flat heels, plaited hair and no makeup. some german women joined illegal opposition political parties to campaign for better status.
- women not equal to men.
Benefits of living under Nazi Rule.
- rearmament policy - increased production in iron and steel industry, more workers needed.
- conscription - more men being put into the army.
- spending on public work schemes - autobahns.
'Beauty of labour' and 'Strength through Joy' set up. they promoted better working conditions and gave rewards for good work.
Drawbacks of living under Nazi Rule.
- wages were lower in 19 38 than they had been in 19 28 even though average working hours had increased from 45 hours to 50 hours and then over 60 towards the end of the war!.
- "under the Nazis German workers worked harder for less reward".
- no free trade unions.
- media censored.
- freedom of speech stifled.
The coming of the war and life in Germany.
Blitzkreig - lightening war.
- left Western Europe quickly overun.
- left German people happy as victory over France meant they had gained revenged over their harsh treatment at Versailles.
Russian Winter and Bombing of German cities - halted Germany's chances of success.
- Russian winter meant German advance had to ground to a halt. resulting in eventual loss of 200,000 men.
- Bombing over German cities caused a decline in production and many civilian casualties meaning their was less workers.
Germany suffered defeats in North Africa. Goebbels stepped up his propaganda campaign to raise morale and ask for sacrifices e.g. German people donated 1.5 million fur coats!
- 19 42 allies began bombing German cities. By 19 45 Berlin was in ruins and its people were starving. Allied aircrafts also dropped pamphlets to encourgae them the give in. major cities reduced to rubble, shortage of basic food items, more than 3million civilians dead.