Nazi Propaganda 1933-39

Education and conformity 

Indoctrination of youth - future generation of Nazis, survival of Nazi ideology, anti-Semitic message central to education/training

Propaganda encouraged pupils to disobey/denounce 'unreliable' teachers 

Pro-Nazi teachers taught lessons of 'crimes' of Jews in history and 'inferiority' of Jews; deliberation isolation/humiliation of Jewish pupils

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Education and conformity

'Jewish science' denounced in Universities, Pro Nazi students organised heckling of 'un-German' professors

Burning of the Books 1933 May, pressure for intellectuals to conform 

Large number of academics emigrated or took low profiles

Total immersion of pupils by uniformwed youth groups e.g. Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend - boys) 

Girls pressured to join the League of German Maidens 

Themes of Nationalism, anti-Communism, statues of the Fuhrer 

Members taught to identify Jews, verbally/physically abuse Jews and those 'too friendly' to Jews

Getting a job or good grades depended on being in Hitler Youth 

Propaganda posters of idealised Aryan boys/girls reinforced racial ideology

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Media and culture

Hitler thought of himself as an artist and believed there was a Jewish conspiracy controlling arts/media 

'rebirth' of traditional German values, purge culture of 'Jewish decadence'

1933 - Reich Chamber of Culture (RKK) under Gobbels to coordinate cultural life of Germany 

Needed approval/membership to continue working

Thousands of Jews forced into exile and lost jobs e.g. Arnold Schoenberg ordinary Germans were receptive to the idea of Jews being over represented in these areas (oppurtunists)

Gobbels in charge of coordinating the indoctrination of German society

convey messages through culture, mass entertaintment, some propaganda films but the film industry was too big for Gobbels to fully control

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Education and conformity

Emphasis on indoctrination of youth, future generation to be committed Nazism, Nazi ideology would live on through them

Pressure on subjects like biology or history, pupils encouraged to denounce 'unreliable' teachers

Pro-Nazis teachers based lessons on historic 'crimes' of Jews, 'inferiority' of Jews; deliberate humiliation and isolation of Jewish pupils

'Jewish science' denounced and pro Nazi students organised heckling of un-German teachers

Burning of the books 1933 May, example of pressure placed on intellectuals to conform

Large number of academics emigrated or adopt a low profile 

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The Press

1933 Reich Press Law censored content of newspapers

Many newspaper editors inside Germany and abroad tried to say on the right side of the regime 

Gobbels and Otto Dietrich invested time and effort influencing foreign journalists

Several official Nazi newspapers - Volkischer Beobachter, Gobbels own newspaper Der Angriff (The Attack), Der Sturmer edited by Julius Streicher 

Racist and pornographic journal Der Sturmer founded in 1920s, sales increased in 1935 coinciding with the Nuremberg Laws

Contract with national labour front ment it was displayed in every workplace

Impact of repitive, hate-filled propaganda helped Jews feel more isolated

Nazi youth leader Melita Maschmann found content vulgar but remained a loyal supporter

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Cheap, mass produced 'People's radio' sets produced in Germany had limited reception

Nazi controlled news and ideological messages

Brough Hitlers speeches to mass audience, by 1939 70% had a radio set in their homes

Germans receptive to propaganda messages in news, plays, comedy and music 

Promoted idea of pure German culture

Thriving black market of jazz records and swing music, people swallowed subtle propaganda stereotypes in mass entertainment without noticing

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Talking films were development in 1930s, small number of official propaganda feature films released, non achieved popularity

Small subtle propaganda messages e.g. actress Kristina Soderbaum represented perfect Aryan racial image in epic The Great King 

The subtle propaganda messages conveyed in the cinema made a big impact as it sub-consciously affected their opinions (reinforced existing views)

Leaders and followers of some churches in Germany were anti-Semitic

Catholic Church made a concordat with Hitler in 1933, some churches receptive to anti-semitic message 

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Emigration - voluntary

Hitler spoke of Judenfrei Germany Method of achieving this was by voluntary emigration by 1938 150,000 Jews had chosen to leave Germany Emigration seen as 'solution to the Jewish problem' 37,000 Jews left Germany in 1933, including leading scientists and cultural figures e.g. Albert Einstein Nazis threatening to confiscate assets but encouraging emigration made it confusing Most Germany Jews, especially older people, felt German therefore wanted to stay Considerable number of Jews left and came back due to lack of opportunities Difficult to find countries willing to accept large numbers of Jews, raise barriers Nazi policies contradictory, pushing Jews to emigrate but taking away assets and money making it harder 9,000 Jewish children sent to Britain between 1938-9 through Kindertransport Reich Office for Jewish Emigration Reinhard Heydrich used Austria to develop ** policy After outbreak of war in 1939, moved to idea of resettlement

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