Methods of Control
- Expected to join the National Socialist Teachers' League (NSLB). 1937-97% had enrolled.
- Many teachers had to attend ideological training courses to confirm their commitment to National Socialism. 1938-two thirds of teachers had attended such courses.
- They were closely monitored and immediately dismissed if suspected of a lack of National Socialist commitment.
- They joined the Nazi Party in greater numbers than any other profession.
- Extra 15% curricular time was allocated to P.E. Two hours a day.
- KEY SUBJECTS: German, Biology and History. These were given special priority, and had to reflect Nazi racial and national perspectives.
- R.E=intended to phase out; by 1939 all denominational schools had been abolished.
- 1935- all textbooks had to be officially approved and their content Nazified.
- Girls recieved an education appropriate to their gender roles, with key focus on needlework, cooking, music and home crafts.
- Most school leavers were guarenteed work.
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- Set up to train the future Nazi elite. National Political Institutes of Education (NAPOLAs) for boys 10-18- controlled by SS from 1936. These were boarding institutions run like military academies. 21 established by 1938.
- Adolf Hitler Schools (AHS)-set up by Youth leader, Baldur von Schirach, and the DAF leader, Robert Ley, as special leadership schools (partly to rival the NAPOLA schools). Children were selected on the grounds of Aryan appearance and leadership qualities, not intellectual qualities, which were seen as less important. Nazi leaders did not send their children to these schools. 10 were created as free boarding education for 12-18-year-olds.
- Higher education was not a priority for the Nazis. Academic learning was considered inferior to practical and physical instruction. The number of students halved from 1933 to 1939. However, the number of females increased from 11% to 44% between 1939 and 1944 (rise in 82,000) as a result to the realisation of the value of specialist education.
- The Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service 1933 led to a purge of 1200 university teachers on ravial and political grounds. All teachers had to join the Nazi Lecturers' Association and attend ideological training courses.
- Students were too expected to join the Nazi controlled German Students' League-there were transmitted ideas about race and eugenics (ideology of how somebody should look).
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- For Hitler the co-ordination of youth was vital to guarantee the future of the Reich. The Nazis aimed to obtain the total loyality of the young
- Boys had to be prepared for War and girls for Motherhood. Other youth groups had to be eliminated in order to remove all competition for winning the 'hearts and minds' of new generations of young people.
- Early 1920s, the Nazi party had established a youth movement led by Kurt Gruber. Aim: to attract young men who could be trained in order to become members of the SA.
- 1926-Hitler Youth movement was renamed 'League of German Worker Youth'-became attached to and run by the SA. Hitler Youth wore uniforms and attended meetings and rallies where they were indoctrinated with Nazi views.
- Posters were used to attract more members. 1925=5,000. 1930=25,000.
- 1936-membership of the Hitler Youth became virtually compulsory for all boys and girls aged over 10. Membership could only be avoided by not paying subscription feed, however this was relaxed in 1939. 1940=8 million members.
- A wide range of leisure practices were available, such as camping and hiking, together with sports, military, training and leadership roles.
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