Nazi education: schools
The Napolas- state boarding schools run by the **
Adolf Hitler schools run by the Hitler Youth
Ordensburgen = a type of school designed to produce the elite for Hitle's future society
However, few new schools were built
There was an anti-academic ethos that led to a fall in standards, especially in traditional subjects.
The profe**ional cla**es chose to send their kids to grammar schools rather than Nazi schools.
The number of people joining the teaching profe**in declined a lot as many did not approve of Nazi ideology
Membership = 1% of children in 1933
Membership= 60% of children in 1936
Compulsory in 1939
Nazis dissolved other youth groups,except the Catholic Youth Movement
German Youth People+ Young German Girls 10-14 / Hitler Youth+ League of German girls 14-18
- Emphasized traditional gender roles. Girls= wives+mothers .Boys = soldiers
- Political indoctrination + patriotism + emphasized the merits of Hitler
Success? Those from poorer backgrounds benefited, but the HY lost some of its appeal when it became compulsory
Women ->The three K's:Kirche, Kuche and Kinder
Weimar-> more women in employment+birth rate droppd <- Nazis wanted to reverse these trends
-Non smoker -Blonde, athletic, fit -Non make up -Good cook
Nazi polcies up to '37
1933 interest-free loans to give up work, labour exchange to discriminate against women, excluded from politics. Nazi Women's Organization <- to put across anti-feminist ideology. Jan 1934 = proportion of girls allowed into HE limited+ grammar education for girls abolished.
After 1937= policies had to change as there was a labout shortage and the 4 year plan needed more workers. No. of working women increased + girls encouraeges to become teachers. Women in work now also granted marriage loans. 1942 +52% of workforce was female
V.strict on anti-abortion laws + limited contraceptive advice
Nazis improved maternity benefits + family allowances
Rewards i.e " Mother's cross" <- bronze, silver and gold depending on how many kids you had
Lebensborn 1935 " to improve racial standards"
Unmarried mothers of a 'good racial background' were cared for & Aryan girls were impregnanted by members of the SS
Good = women seen as important (as mothers)
Bad= v. limited oportunities for women
Christian teachings were in direct opposition to Nazism
The Protest Church
Many were initally in favout of the Nazis cos of the emphasis on family values. Hitler wanted to co-ordinate the church by unifying them under one Reich Church <= easy to control. Ottom Muller = fanatical Nazi = apponted Reich Bishop. Much Conflict! Confessional Church was created in 1934 and independent of the church
Wanted to maintain it's independence => Signed a Concordat in July 1933 <- religious freedom as long as the church could run itself+ Nazis promised not to interfere with legal and property rights of the church
German Faith Movement - Teutonic paganism ( to replace Christianity )
Church and State relations
1935 = failed co ordination. The Ministry of Church Affairs adopted policies to undermine the Church. Closed some church schools, remobed crucifixes from others, banned nativity plays and carols and undermined catholic youth groups. Niemoller and Bonhoeffer sent to conc. camps. Hoever Bishop Galen managed to successfully oppose euthanasia
Succeess? only 5 % of Germans joined the German Faith Movement. Churches weren't coordinated, but there was symathy for Nazism cos of traditional values and dislike of communism
Volksgemeinshaft excluded " biologically inferior" ¬Based on Social Darwinism¬
Aryans were above " unrermenshen".Mixing with the undermenschen had contaminated aryans and selective breeding + removal of undesirables was required.
1933 " Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseased Offspring" <- sterilzation
1933 The Law against dangerous habitual Criminals ( November) <-castration for certain sexual offenders
A department within the gestapo targeted homosexuals and led to 50,000 being arrested
1936- workshy, tramps, beggars, prostitues, homosexuals and juvelile delinquents were sent to concentration camps
Euthanasia campaign 1939 - mentally ill, handicapped, downs syndrome by 1941 72 000 had been killed <- protests stopped it,but it was secretly re started
Origins -------> Gradualism (1933-9).......................> genocide
Origins :Jews were used as the scapegoats for Germany's loss in WWI + the economic crisis of the 1920s and 1930s + jews were resented for how they were initally quite improvished but rose to be seen as quite priveledged.
Legal Discrimination :1 April 1933: the boycott of Jewish shops
7 Aril 1933: Jews excluded from the civil service ( Law of the Restoration of the Proffesional Civil Service
1935: The Nuremberg race laws : Jews lost their citizenship +Jews were forbidden from marrying Germans. 1938 : Jewish doctors not allowed to practise + Jews excluded from schools and universities + compulsory closure and sale of all Jewish businesses
Violence: increased violence towards the Jews; Kristallnacht 9-10 November <-violent pogrom against jewish businesses, homes and synagogues
Emigration: The Central Office for Jewish Emigration led to the forced emigration of Jews, which led to about half the Jews leaving before the war
Anti semitism (2)
When Germany occupied Poland in 1939 the Nazis now had 3 million Jews under Control. War resettlement was difficult and therefore ghettos were created.
June 1941- invasion of Russia- SS Einsatzgruppen rounded up Jews and carried out mass shootings. About 700,000 Jews were killed between 1941- . September 1941 - Jews had to wear the yellow star of David
The Final Solution
Wansee conference - Jan 1942. Plans now were to exterminate the Jews on a wide scale. Lead to extermination camps being created in Treblinka, Auschwitz, Sobibor
1943 Warsaw ghettos destroyed and the Jews were transported to death camps. 1944 Jews from all over German-conquered lands
Propaganda and control
Propaganda was used to glorify Nazism and Nazi values as well as glorify the war and the aryan race.
Radio: Reich Radio Company. People's receiver (1939 = 70% of Germans had one). Loudspeakers in factories, cafes and offices + Radio wardens to make sure people were listening
Press: 1933 Editor's Law ,- dissuaded editors from printing anti-Nazi articles + Reich Press Chamber
Drama and music: Jazz banned. Wanted drama and music to uphold nazi views
Literature and art: writers had to be postive about Nazism. Modern art was banned.
Ritual: Horst Wessel anthem + preponderance of militaristic uniforms + public festivals to commemorate the Seizure of power + key dates in Nazi history + Hitler's birthday.