HARDWOODS: Ash, Oak, Mahogany, Beech
- broadleaved trees, seeds are enclosed
- decidous (temporary/ falls off) or evergreen
- normally found in warmer climates.
- can take 80- 100 years to mature = more expensive than softwoods
- grain is usually: close this means it is often tough, strong.
SOFTWOODS: Spruce, Scotspine, Douglas Fir
- coniferous, cone bearing
- needle-leafed and often with evergreen needle- like leaves
- grows quicker than hard wood. approx 30 years to mature.
- what does FSC stand for?
Properties & characteristics: Orange in colour, tight almost speckled grain, contains natural oils.
Uses:outdoor furniture due to its natural oils, kitchen worktops, park benches
properties & characteristics: Dark brown colour, very expensive.
Uses: fine furniture, veneer on luxurious products.
Properties & characteristics: pale cream/ light brown, open grain, easy to use, flexible for a hardwood
Uses: furniture, tool handles, ladders good for laminated furniture, sports equitment.
properties & characteristics: very dark brown, durable, easy to work, finishes well variable (interlocking) grain, prone to warping
Uses: Furiture, veneers, floorboards
properties & characteristics: white/ pinkish brown, closed grain, hard strong, does not splinter easily
uses: Furniture, toys, wooden utensils, flooring
properties &characteristics: light brown, close grain, hard, durable
uses: good quality furniture, boats, roof, beams, floors
properties & characteristics: yellow red colour - sometime called 'red wood' or 'red deal' one of the strongest softwoods, fairly strong, easy to work, knotty prone to warping, lightweight
uses: simple joinery, construction, telegraph poles, furniture, staircases.
properties & characteristics: yellow/ brown in colour,
uses; construction & buildings, flooring, paced to make douglas fir plywood
WHIT WOOD - SPRUCE:
properties & characteristics: fairly strong, easy to work, resistant to splitting
Uses: paper manufacture, wooden aircraft, musical, instruments
WHAT IS COMPOSITE MATERIALS?
- WHEN TWO OR MORE MATERIALS ARE COMBINED TOGETHER, BY SOME KIND OF BONDING.
- IMPROVED PROPERTIES
- TEND TO HAVE A VERY GOOD STRONGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO.
BLOCKBOARD: how is it made & structure:
- thin strips of 25mm (usually) softwood edge to edge.
- glued with a veneer of usually beech.
- glued under high pressure with a water based glue = indoor use.
- ends somtimes need lipping
- grain of top veneer runs at right angles to the core.
HARDBOARD: how is it made:
- similar to MDF, but with no glue. the pressure and lignin from the wood is used as the glue to hold it together.
properties & characteristics: finely ground particles of wood, smooth surface, textured underside, weak, snaps easily, cheap, thin.
uses: low cost products, clip boards, pin boards, shop fitting, temporary uses.
AEROPLYA: thin, flexible, expensive, snaps if bend over a tight curve. used as curved furniture, laminated furniture
FLEXIPLY: manufactured to be very flexible and to have thickness. used for curved furniture, laminated furniture, can aviod the laminating process
MARINE PLY: orange in colour, water-resistant, large plys. used as boat construction, products that need to be waterproof.
CHIPBOARD- normal, medium, high density
it is similar MDF.
light brown, chips of wood glued, larger particles than hardboard, if it gets wet will become waterlogged, swell and break down.
normally internal applications, used as a core for furniture, temporary structures, fairly smooth surface.
structure: small particles of wood bonded with a synthetic resin. very smooth surface finish. dense.
usually made from wood waste, smooth surface and finish, heavy, light brown, stable, dust is a hazard, heavy
used as radiator covers, furntiure uasually veneered (or formica) over, laminated to improve strength and aesthetics
PLYWOOD: odd numbers of ply's glued together, layers glued at 90 degrees to each toher, light colour, strong for its weight and thickness compared to natural timbers, stable sheet material, layers can de- laminate if wet (and not marine ply). used for structural panels, furniture, boat building.
COVERSION OF TIMBER: through and through sawn (slab)
- simplest method of coversion.
- planks cut along the whole length of the log
- little waste
- final planks are prone to warping and cupping due to the arragement of annual ring
- used moslty for softwood coversion
COVERSION OF TIMBER: quarter sawn conversion
- more expensive compared to through and through method.
- lots more wasteage.
- cut to shorten the length of the annual rings = reduces cupping or twisting
- regarded as high quality timber planks.