natural wood

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natural wood

HARDWOODS: Ash, Oak, Mahogany, Beech

  • broadleaved trees, seeds are enclosed
  • decidous (temporary/ falls off) or evergreen
  • normally found in warmer climates.
  • can take 80- 100 years to mature = more expensive than softwoods
  • grain is usually: close this means it is often tough, strong.

SOFTWOODS: Spruce, Scotspine, Douglas Fir

  • coniferous, cone bearing
  • needle-leafed and often with evergreen needle- like leaves
  • grows quicker than hard wood. approx 30 years to mature.
  • what does FSC stand for?
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natural wood

TEAK

Properties & characteristics: Orange in colour, tight almost speckled grain, contains natural oils.

Uses:outdoor furniture due to its natural oils, kitchen worktops, park benches

WALNUT

properties & characteristics: Dark brown colour, very expensive. 

Uses: fine furniture, veneer on luxurious products. 

ASH

Properties & characteristics: pale cream/ light brown, open grain, easy to use, flexible for a hardwood

Uses: furniture, tool handles, ladders good for laminated furniture, sports equitment.

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MAHOGANY

properties & characteristics: very dark brown, durable, easy to work, finishes well variable (interlocking) grain, prone to warping

Uses: Furiture, veneers, floorboards

BEECH:

properties & characteristics: white/ pinkish brown, closed grain, hard strong, does not splinter easily

uses: Furniture, toys, wooden utensils, flooring

OAK

properties &characteristics: light brown, close grain, hard, durable

uses: good quality furniture, boats, roof, beams, floors

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SCOTSPINE:

properties & characteristics: yellow red colour - sometime called 'red wood' or 'red deal' one of the strongest softwoods, fairly strong, easy to work, knotty prone to warping, lightweight

uses: simple joinery, construction, telegraph poles, furniture, staircases. 

DOUGLAS FIR:

properties & characteristics: yellow/ brown in colour,

uses; construction & buildings, flooring, paced to make douglas fir plywood

WHIT WOOD - SPRUCE:

properties & characteristics: fairly strong, easy to work, resistant to splitting

Uses: paper manufacture, wooden aircraft, musical, instruments

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natural wood

WHAT IS COMPOSITE MATERIALS?

  • WHEN TWO OR MORE MATERIALS ARE COMBINED TOGETHER, BY SOME KIND OF BONDING.
  • IMPROVED PROPERTIES 
  • TEND TO HAVE A VERY GOOD STRONGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO.

BLOCKBOARD: how is it made & structure: 

  • thin strips of 25mm (usually) softwood edge to edge.
  • glued with a veneer of usually beech.
  • glued under high pressure with a water based glue = indoor use.
  • ends somtimes need lipping
  • grain of top veneer runs at right angles to the core.
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natural wood

HARDBOARD: how is it made:

  • similar to MDF, but with no glue. the pressure and lignin from the wood is used as the glue to hold it together.

properties & characteristics: finely ground particles of wood, smooth surface, textured underside, weak, snaps easily, cheap, thin.

uses: low cost products, clip boards, pin boards, shop fitting, temporary uses.

AEROPLYA: thin, flexible, expensive, snaps if bend over a tight curve. used as curved furniture, laminated furniture

FLEXIPLY: manufactured to be very flexible and to have thickness. used for curved furniture, laminated furniture, can aviod the laminating process

MARINE PLY: orange in colour, water-resistant, large plys. used as boat construction, products that need to be waterproof.

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CHIPBOARD- normal, medium, high density

it is similar MDF.

light brown, chips of wood glued, larger particles than hardboard, if it gets wet will become waterlogged, swell and break down.

normally internal applications, used as a core for furniture, temporary structures, fairly smooth surface.

MDF:

structure: small particles of wood bonded with a synthetic resin. very smooth surface finish. dense.

usually made from wood waste, smooth surface and finish, heavy, light brown, stable, dust is a hazard, heavy

used as radiator covers, furntiure uasually veneered (or formica) over, laminated to improve strength and aesthetics

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natural wood

PLYWOOD: odd numbers of ply's glued together, layers glued at 90 degrees to each toher, light colour, strong for its weight and thickness compared to natural timbers, stable sheet material, layers can de- laminate if wet (and not marine ply). used for structural panels, furniture, boat building.

COVERSION OF TIMBER: through and through sawn (slab)

  • simplest method of coversion.
  • planks cut along the whole length of the log 
  • little waste
  • final planks are prone to warping and cupping due to the arragement of annual ring 
  • used moslty for softwood coversion

COVERSION OF TIMBER: quarter sawn conversion

  • more expensive compared to through and through method.
  • lots more wasteage.
  • cut to shorten the length of the annual rings = reduces cupping or twisting
  • regarded as high quality timber planks.
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