NATIVE AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS

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TRIBAL RIGHTS CONGRESS

INDIAN EDUCATION ACT 1972

Closure of boarding schools and building of schools on reservations

INDIAN SELF DETERMINATION ACT 1975

Allowed tribes to negotiate contracts with BIA on health education and social service

EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT 1975

Gave parents more involvement in children's ed increased self governance

INDIAN REORGANISATION ACT 1934 (NEW DEAL)

Wanted to reverse Dawes Act so Wanged self sufficiency and self government, ed and health benefits gained from fed funding, women could have HE

INDIAN EDUCATION ACT 1893
Made going to school compulsory

LEAVITT BILL 1923 - banned tribes from dancing, direct attack on civil and religious rights, led to set up of AIDA who four the bill and campaigned to protect NA rights for beliefs and culture Nd traditions

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CITIZENSHIP CONGRESS

MERIAM REPORT 1928

Condemned govt for depriving Indians of land basic ed and health care, critiqued assimilation, claimed NA most impoverished group in US, negative to Dawes policy

POLICY OF TERMINATION 1953

Grant Native Americans all the rights and privileges of citizenship. Terminated the U.S. government's recognition of tribes, trusteeship of Indian reservations, and exclusion of Indians from state laws. Native Americans were to become subject to state and federal taxes as well as laws, from which they had previously been exempt. High unemployment - urbanisation. Negative policy!

INDIAN CITIZEN ACT 1924

Gave voting rights, reward from war, was not wanted by NA and 2/3 could already vote through Dawes act anyway.

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LAND CONGRESS

INDIAN REORGANISATION ACT 1933

Encouraged land management by tribes - gained land from fed gov returning it (allotment policy ended). However fed finds not sufficient enough to buy back land. Collier didn't consult NA themselves to see what they wanted

DAWES ACT 1887

Aimed to get rid of reservations and Americanise them, divided up land after 25yrs would have ownership, many couldn't pay taxes and failed in farming so land bought by white settlers

CURTIS ACT 1898

Amendment to Dawes Act, 5 tribes previously exempt from Act was not no longer, took away freedom and right to practice tribal laws

HOMESTEAD ACT 1862

Land previously belonging Indians available to white Americans

RESERVATION POLICY - forced to live together on reservation land despite tribe hostilities

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TRIBAL RIGHTS SC

CHEROKEE NATION V HITCHCOCK 1902

Right to live according to own laws and traditions, fed govt had right to overrule Cherokee laws

LONE WOLF V HITCHCOCK 1903

Revoke all treaties made with NA tribes

FISHER V MONTANA 1976

Secured right for tribal courts to decide on all cases relating to adoption of NA children

SEMINOLE TRIVE V BUTTERWORTH

right to establish gambling enterprises on reservations despite state law

CHARRIER V BELL 1986

Remains dug from ground belonged to NA

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CITIZENSHIP SC

HARRISON V LAVEEN 1948

Removed restrictions to NA when trying to vote, restrictions still existed In West, fought by NCAI, many states ignored decision and discrimination continued

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LAND SC

ONEIDA V ONEIDA 1974

Tribes had right to sue for lost land

US V SIOUX NATION 1980

Allowed compensation for land lost $17.5 million but would have preferred return of land

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TRIBAL RIGHTS NA themselves

SAI 1911-20

Pressure group for improvements in ed and health care, not united on ideas of assimilation, lack of funding

NCAI 1944

Indians must unite in protest to have NA in society, challenged discrimination in work and education, first sign tribes would work together to achieve CR

AIM 1968

to maintain tribal rights and preserve culture, direct and militant confrontation with govt, advocated red power

NARF 1970

Charrier v Bell 1986, fought in courts to help NA civil rights

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LAND NA THEMSELVES

NCAI 1944

Challenged breaking of treaties in court and wanted to end reservations.

ICC 1946-78

I response to pressure form NCAI, Indians could file in order to regain land lost, however many claims weren't settled and money was given instead of land when they were.

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CITIZENSHIP NA THEMSELVES

IRA 1882

concentrated on idea of assimilation in order to improve well being, shaped Indian policy In 1930s

NCAI 1944

Have NA in society

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