• Created by: KDallers-
  • Created on: 03-06-19 18:26

What is Nationalism/A Nation?

Idea of a 'world of nations' - a nation is, by the OED definition, 'an aggregate community of individuals united by factors'; Mill - 'united among themselves on common sympathies' - ANDERSON - 'imagined local communities' - are nations simply SOCIAL CONSTRUCTS? NATION - refers to a birthplace, and tries to unify the population through nationalism; a 'natural form of human organisation'; or is it imagined?

NATIONALISM - an 'ideology' about identity of a nation - concept of national self-consciousness - suggesting antiquity and universality, but in reality it is confined to one nation, and is only a post-Enlightenment ideal - so paradoxical

- Billig - 'banal nationalism' - and 'endemic condition... a continual background for political discourses' - simply a political principle (Gellner); therefore not a strict ideology? BREUILLY - consists of 1) unique community; 2) nation-state and 3) political self-determination - however, sees these as INCOMPATIBLE - nationalism is the RESOLUTION OF EXTERNAL CONFLICT BETWEEN STATE AND SOCIETY

Gellner - state is a 'legal supreme' - Mill and Rousseau argued unifying these into a 'nation-state'; can develop into nationalism with an ethnic/national identity; becomes more FRAGMENTED - however, there are ISSUES WITH CREATING THIS - identity is 1) relative; 2) not guaranteed of democracy, and 3) can be torn apart again at any time - SO NOT INFALLABLE

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Ethnic Nationalism

A belief that the 'nation' is formed of PEOPLE TIED TOGETHER by CULTURE, LANGUAGE and ETHNICITY - the idea that there is a traceable descent, perhaps genetic - the 'right of blood' (just sanguinis) - this idea OPPOSES FOREIGN FRAMEWORKS

Integral nationalism - more extreme version - argues for nations hierarchically, and supports social Darwinism and promoting the 'volk' and an aggressive foreign policy - Nazism

Ethnic nationalism opposes cultural Marxism and believes there is ONE NATIONAL GROUP, with the rest being outsiders - for Trump, the 'Judeo-Christian civilisation', and then other 'civilisations' which are viewed as hostile - results in key features of ANTI-IMMIGRATION, ANTI-MULTICULTURALISM and sometimes borderline racism

Linked to a hierarchy and cultural superiority - emerged with Gottlieb Fichte, who argued that languages were ranked hierarchically - English and French superior, with a hierarchy - the most like English/French were more superior; similarly, HEGEL - nations in a 'permanent state of war', and nations were RANKED HIERARCHICALLY by their HISTORY - supported by Blanning, Smith, Hastings

Overall - key competitive notions of COMPETITION, HIERARCHY and ETHNOLINGUISTIC BONDS

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Civic Nationalism

Referred to as 'modernist' or 'liberal' nationalism - supported by Anderson, Gellner - how the 'nation' promotes LIBERAL VALUES and DEMOCRACY, combining this with territorial sovereignty (Westphalia 1648); a commitment to CIVIC VALUES and PRINCIPLES

If you were born in, or commit to the values and laws of a nation for a certain period of time, you are PART OF THAT NATION - aka 'right of soil' or 'jus soli' - this form of nationalism is more about a SENSE OF BELONGING to the nation, rather than a TRACEABLE GENETIC DESCENT and bloodline - more about mental allegiance to the nation - occurred in France post-1789 - committed to 'liberty, equality, fraternity'; HOWEVER This citizenship can be REVOKED if you withdraw your allegiance - case of Shamima Begum

The dominant strand of nationalism throughout the 19th century - these core liberal values were incorporated with nationalism - support for CONSTITUTIONALISM and DEMOCRACY - the views of Mazzini's 'Young Italy' group and Plamenatz' Western liberal view of nationalism; the ABSOLUTE SOVEREIGNTY of the nation is supported

View of Rousseau (Polish Constitution), Diderot, and Renan - nationalism a a 'daily plebiscite' - contribute to the nation + promote egalitarianism

Conservative nationalism? More cultural (Plamenatz - Eastern) - based on tradition + organicism

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Nationalism and the Nation-State

Nation-state - a popular form of organisation reliant on NATIONALIST ALLEGIANCE - this can either be banal (Billig), more of a 'daily plebiscite' (Renan), or ultranationalistic - about commitment; there are VARIOUS FORMS, as it is a 'thin-centred' ideology - but, the NATION-STATE exists as a form of organisation COMMITTED TO MODERNISATON + EVOLUTION - the best and 'final' form of organisation?

The nation-state BRIDGES THE GAP between traditional and modern - 'the key to modernisation' - empowers and enthuses the 'low cultures' (Gellner) and unites the nation - top-down, led by authoritarian elites? Hobsbawm - state elites came first, so drive unification

The STATE is crucial, as is the NATION - but how does the nation-state operate within a multinational society - more difficult, a great success if it works - Lord Acton

CONSOCIATIONALISM - about unifying and granting autonomy based on CULTURAL DIVISIONS; this can be social, ideological; but all nations feel included based on power-sharing

FEDERALISM - sharing sovereignty between national sub-cultures; however, some see this as undermining the nation-state - less central power

SECESSIONISM - democratic or remedial - requires international support, but undermines the nation-state through the creation of a new one

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History of Nationalism

Some see nationalism as the 'key to fascism'; HOWEVER - supported by many more moderate thinkers through history - GREENFELD - eerged in 16th century as 'UNCONSCIOUS NATIONAL AWARENESS', and later in 1648 through the Westphalian Agreement - principle of 'territorial sovereignty' - HOWEVER, this was not the formation of the NATION; more about the STATE

Enlightenment - this supported liberal-national ideals and civic nationalism - popular representation within the state - for example, 'Frenchness' in the French Revolution unified

WATERSHED - the 1848 Revolutions - view supported by Hobsbawm and Hroch - this was the 'springtime of the people' (of the nation), and created nation-states and subsequent UNIFICATIONS of smaller nations into states - Germany, Italy - however, these were AUTHORITARIAN REVOLUTIONS - yet unifications had mass support - start of NATION-STATE; also branded a period of 'PHILOSOPHICAL NATIONALISM' pertaining to modernisation - Deutsch; DECOLONISATION - the formation of many new nation-states following colonialism - proliferation of the concept globally, challenging the social Darwinism of empire - Gandhi, India

INTEGRAL? Totalitarianism of interwar period - contribute to how we 'demonise nationalism' (Nairn); MODERN - linked to capitalism and now more hierarchical - trying to create social cohesion over a greater territory, but is increasingly undermined by GLOBALISATION

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Key Questions of Nationalism

IS IT GOOD OR BAD? General - ethnic is BAD, civic is BETTER - MARXISM - criticises both as a 'historic failure' representing capitalism and the bourgeoise - see states as being consumed by the concept; Orwell 'about desire for power' + Gellner 'high people vs low' - ELITIST CONCEPT

GOOD: - stability and democracy; - national security; - liberative potential; - unity; BAD: - uncritical; - authoritarian leadership; - aggressive in terms of integral nationalism

IS NATIONALISM AN IDEOLOGY? Often used as a VEHICLE for more 'thick' ideologies like liberalism - used by 'conservatives' like Trump, Bannon in the USA - however, nationalism has no FUTURE PLAN - 'thin-centred' like populism by Freeden's classification; there are various 'layers' and types, meaning it can be adapated and is fairly INCOHERENT

Incoherence - Goodwin - 1) Different types of national identity; 2) Fragmentation as a result; 3) Political self-determination = clashing loyalties; 4) 'Nations make men, and men make nations'; 5) A logistical failure - how does it work?

Also criticised by Hobsbawm and Minogue - see nationalism as too incoherent to be an ideology, as well as a mere 'type of rhetoric' as opposed to an ideology - can become too ETHNOCENTRIST to be considered an all-ecompassing ideology 

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Key Nationalist Thinkers

Mill; Anderson - 'the nation'

Billig; Breuilly; Nairn; Deutsch; Gellner - NATIONALISM DEFINITIONS

Trump; Fichte; Hegel - ethnic nationalism; Hitler with integral nationalism

Lord Acton; Rousseau; Mill - the nation-state

Plamenatz - West vs East nationalism

Renan; Mazzini; Locke - civic nationalism

Hobsbawm; Greenfel; Hroch; Gandhi - history of nationalism

Marx; Orwell; Freeden; Goodwin; Minogue - critics of nationalism/not an ideology

Vincent; Dieckhoff; Goodwin - textbooks

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