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  • Created by: Muy
  • Created on: 17-04-13 22:14


A group of people who recognise they have a common identity, whether religious, region or language/// It defines their origin

Ethnic nationalism - national identity coming from a shared ethnic/racial heritage, such as common historical ties e.g. linguistics 

Civil nationalism - national identity deriving from shared values as to how society should be constituted  such as democracy and human rights... a society as a community wherein citizens have an obligation to each other exceeding mere kinship and ethnicity 

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Whats a nation?

Various forms of culture e.g. language, religion and tradition... language being the most popular way of defining a nation (Mazzini)... This is because its easy to identify and its a key element of nationhood

Some nationalism prefer relgion as an organising principle, Israel being the most prominent one and Ulster with Protestantism

Wilson believed nations should have their own states, as nations were a superior form of political community... NATION STATE - states based on the principle of nationality, a key part of the French Revolution

Multinational empires consisted of domination of one or two nationalities over the rest, lacking legitimacy

Multinational states can exist still, Switzerland has a distinct 'Swissness', a common political experience... There isn't a superior ethnicity or language

Racialism uses quasi-scientified theories to justify lebenschraum (Rosenberg)

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Liberal nationalism

Individuals have right to personal autonomy, as do nations (derives from the Englightenment)

No nation should be restain unless it threatens individuals autonomy

Nation possess rights to SELF DETERMINATION - the right to rule themselves, to determine they own destiny ya diggg

Only national sovereignty would liberate nations from foreign oppression, then they would experience true liberty

The UN was created in the basis of liberal nationalism, after collapsed empires in 1918 there was an attempt to create independant nation states

Society of nations would be harmonious as they would share interest in progress of all forms, plus if on state took aggressive action against another the UN would intervene 

The UN was useless preventing the Rwandan 1994 genocide for instance

Ethnic cleansing displayed human rights werent always under threat from foreign invaders, so the sovereign states rights should be overriden  e.g. UK in Iraq 2003

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Conservative nationalism

Nationalism could be used to support existing order

Conservative nationalism transfers core concepts from society to the nation

PATRIOTISM - allows social order and stability (primary alleigance to your own nation)

It provides emotional and pyscological security which prevents social collapse

Nations are held together by common heritage/traditions... HENCE

British nationalism emphasises wars against France, the positives of the empire, Second World War... all positive qualities and contributions to humanity

Its exclusiveness is key, it excludes those who cannot identify with these moment.... It percieves nations as potentially hostile, supranational bodies have pragmatic interests only not emotional ones

Internally it can be quite xenophobic, deriving from the organic society theory - it has essential feautures, with alien growth threatening the body (i.e. immigrants with their foreign cultures)

Enoch Powerll promoted this racially based nationalism, widespread immigration would cause social disruption, conflict, tensions and violence as it wouldnt adapt to these aliens

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Expansionist nationalism

National identity and idea of innae superiority of ones nations, and the inferiority of others

This implies other nationalities are stupid, cowardles and these ideas quickly develop into racialism (an ideology that views race as central defining factor of human existence)

A nation is justified in imposing rule over inferior nations , Mussolini in his expansion in Africa used heritage such as the Roman Empire

Most forms of expansionist nationalism favours aggression and military exploits, Prussian State for instance was very militarised

This was quite successful in the past due to 'social darwinism', natural selection to international relations... It legitimised war, the fitter v unfit

Fascism drew on national greatness, mythical national missions, social darwinism, inferior nations were therefore to be eliminated

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Anti colonial nationalism

Nationalism becomes the means for liberation for colonial territories, and the agent for post colonial political entity

First examples of panti colonial nationalism resembled liberal nationalism, Indian National Congress aimed to create a unified nation of Guissepe Mazzini 

Indians admired Britishness, wanting to embrace parliamentary democracy

Imperial rule drained colonies of their wealth and resources such as raw materials, and they were used for home countrys manufactured good as a secure market.... Local industries in colonies would be competitiors so they were restricted... Nationalism was seen as a tool for social change and economic progress, overall national self sufficiency (ujaama Julius Nyere)

National liberation implied armed struggle against rulers, the Cuban revolution was admired for bringing universal welfare and education

Post colinial phase in Africa, in the Middle East it was anti-Western due to Palestine-Israel conflicts as secular nationalist regimes failed to resolve the fate of Palestinians

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